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Full text of "FM 10-10 Quartermaster Service in Theater of Operations"

MHI 

Copy 3 FM 10-10 









QUARTERMASTER 
FIELD MANUAL 




QUARTERfc^^^feERVICE 

theater^Of operations 




March 2, 1942 







■Or,. ^OPtBr* 



TM 10-10 



c 1 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP 
OPERATIONS 



FM 10-10, March 2, 1942, is changed as follows : 

■ 66 (Superseded.) Quartermaster Gasoline Supply Units. — 
o. The gasoline supply battalion consists of a headquarters and 
headquarters detachment and four companies (see T/O 10-75 
and T/O 10-76). The gasoline supply company consists of a 
company headquarters and two platoons of two sections each 
(see T/O 10-77^. Each section is equipped with a gasoline 
driven dispensing unit, eight hundred 5-gallon cans, five trucks, 
and five trailers. 

6. The gasoline supply battalion will not normally be em- 
ployed as a unit. Each company is capable, of operating two 
gasoline and oil railheads for army troops, corps troops, or 
divisions other than armored divisions. For armored divisions 
one company per division will be required. 

c. The gasoline supply company has a gasoline container and 
transporting capacity of 16,000 gallons of gasoline and oil. It 
is not, however, a transport company. This container capacity, 
consisting of gasoline in 5-gallon cans, is used to establish an 
initial stockage at the railhead or gasoline refilling point and 
to provide prompt supply of full containers for exchange for 
empty containers. Full containers are transported by the gaso- 
line supply unit from the old railhead or gasoline refilling point 
to a new railhead or gasoline refilling point and from a rail- 
head or gasoline refilling point to form distributing points estab- 
lished for one or two divisions, corps, or army. The gasoline 
supply company operates the distributing points. Distributing 
points should be pushed as far forward for divisions as the 
tactical situation permits. This location is influenced also by 

*These changes supersede section I f Training Circular No. 48, War Depart- 
ment, 1942. 

485685° — 42 




WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, October 8, 1942. 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



the round trip distance and the amount of gasoline required by 
the unit served. Units will not be permitted to come to the 
railhead or gasoline refilling point to exchange empty containers 
for full ones, and every precaution will be taken to reduce and 
conceal activity at this point.- A gasoline distributing point 
will be established even though only a short distance from the 
railhead or gasoline refilling point. 

d. The gasoline supply company reduces bulk deliveries of 
gasoline to 5-gallon cans at the railhead or refilling point, loads 
these filled cans on trucks for movement to distributing point, 
and unloads them at distributing point. Units drawing fuel 
and lubricants at gasoline distributing points are charged with 
the loading and unloading of their unit vehicles. 

e. Additional truck transportation, gasoline containers, and 
labor may be attached to supplement gasoline supply companies 
when required due to length of lines of communication and 
gasoline requirements. 

[A. G. 062.11 (8-22-42).] (C. 1, Oct. 8, 1942.) 

■ 130. Graves Registration. — See TM 10-630. 

[A. G. 062.11 (7-28-42). 1 (C 2, Oct. 8, 1942.) 

CHAPTER 3 
CAVALRY AND ARMORED DIVISIONS 
* * * * » 

Section II 
ARMORED DIVISION (Superseded) 

■ 151. General. — Quartermaster service in the armored division 
is provided by the quartermaster section of the rear echelon 
of division headquarters, and by the division quartermaster 
platoon and the service platoon of headquarters company of the 
supply battalion (T/O 10-35). The division quartermaster is 
a staff officer on the division commander's special staff. He has 
no troop command. 

■ 152. Organization of the Division Quartermaster Office. — 
In general, the organization of the division quartermaster's 
office is similar to the organization of that office In infantry and 
cavalry divisions. The organizational chart of this office follows : 



2 



SERVICE IN THEATER OE OPERATIONS 



DIVISION 
QUARTERMASTER 



EXECUTIVE AND ASSISTANT DIVISION QUARTERMASTER 


Administra- 
tive 
section 


Supply division 


Transporta- 
tion 
section 




Class 
I 


Class 
III 


Classes 
II and IV 





■ 153. Special Consideration. — a. The armored division is or- 
ganized to provide the maximum flexibility of combat groupings. 
The combat commands are formed by grouping various combat 
and supply elements of the division to meet the tactical require- 
ments in each situation. The supply system of the division 
must be equally flexible. 

6. The normal load of the supply battalion consists of ammuni- 
tion. No rolling reserves of other classes of supply are carried 
In the division train. If the trucks of the supply battalion are 
to be used for other classes of supply, the ammunition load must 
first be distributed or dumped. Because of the volume of ammu- 
nition expended by the armored division, use of trucks of the 
supply battalion for ocher loads than ammunition will be 
Exceptional. 

c. A "day of operation" is considered as 100 miles of move- 
ment for all vehicles. Two "days of operation" of fuel, includ- 
ing that carried in vehicle tanks, are available within the regi- 
ments and separate units. 

d. The division train and the unit trains are frequently grouped 
together for control and protection. When so grouped they 
are controlled tactically by the division train commander. The 
latter is not responsible for the technical operations of the 
services. 



s 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



■ 154. Class I Supply. — Railhead or other army supply point 
distribution is normal. There is no truck transportation avail- 
able to the division quartermaster for making unit distribution. 
Regrouping of unit trains to conform to the particular grouping 
of the combat commands is accomplished by the division train 
commander in the train bivouac prior to dispatching trains to 
the railhead. The service platoon of the headquarters and head- 
quarters company, supply battalion, is used for making the break- 
down of the ration, by unit, at the railhead and for manhandling 
the organic ammunition load of the truck companies. Units are 
responsible for the loading of their rations at the railheads. 
Each unit in the combat command will be furnished fuel and 
lubricant trucks and ration trucks, for its resupply, by its parent 
organization of the armored division. One of the unit supply 
officers (normally of the armored regiment or armored infanty 
regiment) will act as S~4 for the combat command. The group- 
ing and proper utilization of the supply vehicles and procure- 
ment of supplies will be coordinated by this S-4 in' conformity 
with orders of the combat command commander. 

■ 155. Class III Supply. — A system similar to that described in 
paragraph 154 is required for the distribution of fuel and lubri- 
cants. There is no transportation available to the division 
quartermaster for making unit distribution. However, it is the 
division quartermaster's responsibility that timely requests are 
made to the army, corps, or oilier higher echelons to place the 
required amounts and kinds of class III supplies as close to the 
unit trains as transportation and the tactical situation permits. 
The service includes filling of 5-gnllon cans with fuel and when 
practicable, assisting in unloading empty cans from unit vehicles 
and loading the vehicles with full cans. 

■ 156. Class II and IV Supply— See paragraph 118w, FM 10-5. 
The supply of these classes is normally accomplished during lulls 
in operations. 

■ 157. Independent Armored Division. — When the armored di- 
vision is acting alone on a detached or independent mission, it 
will be necessary to have attached army or GHQ supply units 
to accomplish those parts of the supply mission which are nor- 
mally required of the higher echelon. Two truck companies; 



4 



SERVICE IN THEATER Or OPERATIONS 



two railhead detachments ; one gasoline supply company ; one 
quartermaster company (service) ; and one quartermaster com- 
pany, HM, mobile, or a detachment therefrom, can be considered 
normal attachments, except when distances, terrain, or weather 
make additional reinforcements necessary. 

[A. G. 062.11 (6-11-42).] (C 1, Oct. 8, 1942.) 
By order of. the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

(Thief of Staif. 

Official: 

J. A. TJLIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 



5 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE t t*4t 



FM 10-10 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE 
IN 

THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



Prepared under direction of 
The Quartermaster General 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1942 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, March 2, 1942. 
FM 10-10, Quartermaster Field Manual, Quartermaster 
Service in Theater of Operations, is published for the infor- 
mation and guidance of all concerned. 

[A. G. 062.11 (9-24-^1).] 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: - 

J. A. ULIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 
Distribution: 

D (6) ; B 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 17 (3) ; R (2) , 10 (5) ; Bn 10 (5) ; 

IBn (3) ; C 10 (3) ; IC 3 (4). 
(For explanation of symbols see FM 21-6.) 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 



Part I. Communications zone. Paragraphs Page 
Chapter 1. Organization and functions of 
theater of operations. 

Section I. General 1-5 1 

n. Terminology 6-23 7 

Chapter 2. Organization and operation of 
quartermaster service in com- 
munications zone. 
Section I. Office of quartermaster, com- 
munications zone 24-29 11 

n. Operation of quartermaster 
service In communications 

zooie 30-32 23 

III. Depots 33-39 28 

IV. Regulating stations 40-50 38 

V. Railheads 51^56 18 

Chapter 3. Supply installations. 

Section I. Salvage and related activities 57-62 44 

II. Subsistence 63-65 50 

III. Gasoline and oil supply 66-67 54 

IV. Remount depot 68-70 55 

V. Personnel replacement 71-80 56 

Chapter 4. Transportation. 

Section I. Water 81 60 

II. Motor 83-85 60 

in. Rail 86-90 68 

IV. Air 91 68 

Part n. Combat zone. 
Chapter 1. General. 

Section I. Responsibility and functions. 92-94 72 

II. Definitions 95-116 74 

Chapter 2. Division quartermaster units. 

Section I. Quartermaster regiment 117-119 77 

n. Division quartermaster's of- 
fice (square division) 120-121 82 

m. Operations 122-132 . 86 

IV. Quartermaster battalion, In- 
fantry division (triangular) 133-139 109 
Chapter 3. Cavalry and armored divisions. « 

Section I. Cavalry division (horse) 140-150 114 

n. Armored division 151-158 121 

Chapter 4. Army corps. 

Section I. Corps as part of army 159-172 125 

n. Independent corps 173-176 134 

Chapter 5. Army 177-185 137 

Chapter 6. Quartermaster service. 

Section I. Air Force 186-188 146 

n. GHQ 189-192 152 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part II. Combat zone — Continued. Paragraphs Page 
Chapter 7. Troop movements. 

Section I. Assigned motor transport 193-194 153 

II. Shuttling 195-200 155 

HI. Railway 201 160 

Chapter 8. Plans, orders, estimate of situa- 
tion, and reports 202-207 161 

Chapter 9. Protection of food supplies 

against poisonous gas 208-213 169 

Appendix, Routing of requisitions, calls, and 

supplies 1-11 171 

Index 174 



IV 



PM 10-10 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF 
OPERATIONS 

PAKT I 

COMMUNICATIONS ZONE 

CHAPTER 1 

ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THEATER OF 



■ 1. Theater of War. — The theater of war comprises those 
areas of land and sea which are or may become directly in- 
volved in the operations of war. That part of the theater 
of war within the control of each belligerent is usually divided 
into a zone of interior and one or more theaters of operations. 



■ 2. Zone of the Interior. — a. The zone of the interior is that 
part of the national territory not included in the theater of 
operations. The mission of the supply system of the zone of 
interior is to accumulate supplies for the military forces and 
to issue these supplies to the troops as required. This mis- 
sion is continuous during both peace and war and embraces 
all supply activities. It is accomplished by the determination 
of requirements, the mobilization of industries and resources 

, to produce these requirements, and the procurement, storage, 
transportation, and issue of supplies. 

b. In general, the functions of the several agencies of the 
zone of the interior, in time of war, are to supply the com- 
mander of the field forces with the means necessary for the 
accomplishment of his mission. These functions are carried 
out by the chiefs of the supply services of the zone of the 
interior, their respective operations being directed and 
controlled by the Secretary of War. (See FM 100-10.) 

■ 3. Theater of Operations. — a. (1) A theater of operations 
covers the land and sea areas it is desired to invade or defend. 



OPERATIONS 



Section I. General 

II. Terminology 



Paragraphs 

1-5 

6-23 



Section I 



GENERAL 




1 



3 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



including what is necessary for administrative establishments 
and agencies pertaining to the forces in the theater. Each 
theater of operations is divided, for the purposes of combat 
and for decentralization of administration, into a communi- 
cations zone and a combat zone. (See FM 100-10.) 

(2) Initially, in a campaign, the theater of operations may 
include only a combat zone; installations and facilities of the 
zone of the interior being utilized for the service of the com- 
batant troops. However, as soon as the advance is such that 
all of the territory gained is not required for combat opera- 
tions, a communications zone should be organized. 

b. The commander of a theater of operations, in addition 
to the direction of combat operations, is responsible for the 
provision and distribution of supplies and replacements, hos- 
pitalization and evacuation, necessary control over the civil 
population in friendly territory, administration of military 
government in hostile territory, and control of all means of 
transportation within the theater of operations. He organ- 
izes the system of supply in the manner best suited to the 
performance of its proper functions. The organization of 
the system of supply is controlled by the consideration that 
it must be capable of adapting itself to the constant, and often 
rapidly, changing conditions of military operations. Figure 1 
shows a method of decentralizing the administrative control 
by the theater commander. 





Theater commander 




















Combat zone 
commander 




Regulating 
officer 




Army 
commander(s) 



Figure 1. — Method of decentralizing administrative control by 
theater commander. 



c. When there is more than one theater of operations under 
a single commander, the functions of general headquarters 
with regard to supply and evacuation consist, in general, in 
the apportionment of available resources and facilities, and 
in the establishment of priorities among the several theaters. 

d. The supply section of the general staff of a theater of 
operations prepares and issues the orders and directions nec- 



2 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 3-4 

essary to secure compliance with the commander's basic poli- 
cies, decisions, and plans, and also follows up their execution. 

e. Chiefs of supply services, at headquarters of a theater of 
operations, exercise general technical direction of their serv- 
ices as a whole. They are responsible to their commander 
for — 

(1) The preparation of a complete project for building up 
the organization of their respective services, and its expansion 
in conformity with the general organization project and with 
approved priorities. 

(2) The efficient operation of their service as a whole. 

(3) The establishment and maintenance of simplified and 
uniform methods of administration, operation, and pro- 
cedure for all activities of their service in the theater of 
operations. 

(4) Cooperation with their service representatives in sub- 
ordinate commands. 

(5) Development of new, improved, or special types of serv- 
ice supplies to meet the particular requirements of the theater 
of operations. 

(6) Command of all service troops, and installations, not 
assigned to or attached to subordinate units. (See FM 
100-10.) 

■ 4. Communications Zone. — a. Definition. — The communi- 
cations zone comprises that portion of the theater of opera- 
tions containing the principal establishments of supply and 
evacuation, lines of communication, and other agencies re- 
quired for the immediate support and maintenance of the 
forces in the theater of operations. It includes all the terri- 
tory between the rear boundary of the theater of operations 
and the rear boundary of the combat zone. (See FM 100-10.) 

b. Boundaries. — Laterally, the area of the communications 
zone is usually coextensive with that of the theater of opera- 
tions. The rear boundary of the communications zone is the 
rear boundary of the theater of operations and is fixed from 
time to time by the War Department. The rear boundary 
of the combat zone is fixed by the commander of the theater 
of operations. It is determined by the idea that the combat- 
zone should embrace only the territory necessary for the com- 
bat forces opposed to the enemy. In an advance the rear, 
boundary of the combat zone is stepped forward in order to 



3 



4 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



relieve commanders of the combat zone from the responsi- 
bility of administration of as much territory as possible. 

C. Subdivisions. — (1) The depth and organization of the 
communications zone will vary between wide limits, in ac- 
cordance with each situation. The primary consideration is 
that it be so organized as to fit in with the plan of military 
operations and relieve the combat forces of every considera- 
tion except that of defeating the enemy. 

(2) When the situation is favorable for effecting much of 
the supply and evacuation direct between zone of interior 
establishments and the combat zone, the communications 
zone may be very limited in depth. 

(3) In some cases the communications zone may be or may 
become so extended in depth as to make it desirable to divide 
the zone into a base section and an advance section in order 
to secure centralized control and decentralized operation. 

(4) In exceptional cases, such as an oversea operation, it 
may become desirable to divide the communications zone into 
three sections, designated in order from rear to front: base, 
intermediate, and advance. Conditions may require a subdi- 
vision of the sections into subsections. 

d. Supply functions. — (1) Base of operations. — The com- 
munications zone is the base of operations of the supply 
system in the theater of operations. It is the function of the 
communications zone to provide for the necessary flexibility 
of supply by an adequate echelonment of supply establish- 
ments, both laterally and in depth. The forward establish- 
ments contain balanced stocks maintained at a level deter- 
mined from time to time by the theater commander as neces- 
sary to meet promptly the immediate needs of the troops in 
the combat zone. In the rear establishments are received 
the supplies arriving from the zone of the interior or obtained 
by local procurement. In the communications zone, also, 
will be found the main repair, replacement, and evacuation 
establishments. 

(2) Establishment of communications zone. — Conditions 
may arise which will permit operation, in the initial phase of 
a campaign, directly between the zone of the interior and the 
combat zone without an intervening communications zone. 
However, the early establishment of a communications zone, 
even though it be of slight depth, is desirable. The first in- 
stallations to be established are those of the advance section, 



4 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 4 

followed later by those of the base and intermediate sections 
in the order named. When only the advance section is estab- 
lished, depots of the zone of interior function as base depots. 

(3) Communications zone depots. — Depots are the backbone 
of the system of supply, and are the means through which the 
flexibility of supply operations is assured. Communications 
zone depots contain the reserves. The number, location, and 
character of these depots, together with the base reserves to 
be stocked and maintained, are determined by the comman- 
der of the communications zone in accordance with the in- 
structions and policies of the theater commander. The com- 
munications zone commander allots depot space to the serv- 
ices and determines the location of repair establishments and 
other installations pertaining to each service. (See also FM 
100-10 and 10-5.) 

(4) General depots. — General depots are organized into sec- 
tions corresponding to the several supply services represented. 
Each section is designated by the name of the supply service 
to which it pertains, for example, Ordnance Section, Quar- 
termaster Section, etc. Each general depot is commanded by 
an officer designated by, and who operates under, the com- 
munications zone commander. In general, the commander of 
a general depot coordinates the activities of the general depot 
supply officers while leaving to them the internal manage- 
ment of their respective sections. Specifically, the duties of 
a depot commander include — 

(a) Coordination of the activities pertaining to transpor- 
tation, finance, and utilities. 

(b) Assignment of space and other facilities to the various 
sections of the depot. 

(c) Control of a common labor pool and of its allotment 
to the various supply sections in accordance with their needs. 

(<Z) Facilitating the hauling of incoming and outgoing 
shipments, and the loading and unloading of cars and other 
means of transportation. 

(e) Supervision and control of methods of storage so far as 
safety arid proper utilization of allotted space is concerned. 

(/) Cooperation in every way with the chiefs of the supply 
services. (See also FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

(5) Each depot quartermaster supply officer at a general 
depot is responsible for the proper storage, care, mainte- 
nance, and issue of all supplies pertaining to his service; the 



5 



4 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



operating control of the personnel assigned to his section; 
the supply records pertaining to his service; the supervision 
of the loading and unloading of his supplies; the proper mark- 
ing of all shipments; the necessary arrangements with the 
transportation agencies of the depot for shipments; and the 
timely transmission, through prescribed channels, of informa- 
tion with respect to shipments. 

(6) The organization and administration of branch depots 
are direct responsibilities of the chiefs of the supply services. 
Commanders of branch depots are assigned by the commander 
of the communications zone on the recommendations of the 
chief of service concerned. Supplies are stored in branch 
depots in such amounts as may be prescribed by the communi- 
cations zone commander. The commander of a branch depot 
has the same responsibilities as those given for the depot sup- 
ply officer and, in addition, the duties of a commanding officer 
of a station. 

(7) The chief of the quartermaster supply service is directly 
responsible to the commander of the communications zone for 
the supply operations of his branch depots and for the opera- 
tions of his repair shops or other establishments. He is 
charged with the following responsibilities: 

(a) The provision, proper storage, and issue of all supplies 
pertaining to the quartermaster service. 

(6) The maintenance of depot stocks at prescribed levels. 

(c) The supply of technically trained quartermaster per- 
sonnel necessary for the efficient functioning of quartermaster 
depots and of quartermaster sections of general depots. 

(d) The keeping of records . in such form that prompt 
report can be made whenever directed as to kind, quantity, 
location, and condition of supplies available for distribution. 

(e) The issue of such technical instructions to his sub- 
ordinates as will insure the efficient functioning of the quar- 
termaster service. 

(/) The taking of such measures as may be necessary for 
equalization of stocks between depots. 

(.g) The prompt report, with appropriate recommenda- 
tions, to the commander of the communications zone, of all 
items of supply which require special attention. 

(8) In the forward movement of troops and supplies to 
the combat zone the responsibility of the communications 

- zone. ends with delivery to the control of the regulating officer. 



6 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 4-6 

(9) The issue of supplies to organizations in the communi- 
cations zone is made from the most convenient depots. 

(10) In addition to the procurement and distribution of 
supplies and material of all kinds for the theater of opera- 
tions, the communications zone provides the following: 

(a) Facilities for evacuation and hospitalization of men 
and animals. 

(b) Transportation for men and supplies. 

(c) Depots for replacements and casuals. 

(d) Rest camps, leave and quartering areas, and training 
centers. 

(e) Facilities for the reception and care of salvage. (See 
FM 100-10.) 

■ 5. Combat Zone. — a. The combat zone comprises that part 
of the theater of operations required for the active operations 
of the combatant forces. Its depth is dependent upon size 
of the forces assigned, nature of the operations contemplated, 
character of the lines of communication, important terrain 
features, and enemy capabilities. The combat zone is di- 
vided into army, corps, and division areas, each comprising 
the zone of operations of the unit to which it pertains. 

b. The army service area is the territory between the corps 
rear boundary and the combat zone rear boundary. The 
mass of army administrative establishments and army serv- 
ice troops is usually located in this area. 

c. In an advance the rear boundary of the combat zone 
is stepped forward in order to relieve commanders within 
the combat zone from responsibility of administration of as 
much territory as possible. (See FM 100-10 and 100-5.) 

Section H 

TERMINOLOGY 

■ 6. Supplies. — In a military sense the term "supplies" cov- 
ers all items necessary to the equipment, maintenance, and 
operation of a military command. It includes food, clothing, 
equipment, arms, ammunition, fuel, forage, construction ma- 
terials, and machinery of all kinds. For simplicity and con- 
venience of administration, supplies required by troops in the 
field are divided into five classes as follows — (see also FM 
100-10) : 

a. Class I. — Those articles which are consumed at an ap- 
proximately uniform daily rate irrespective of combat oper- 

7 



6-12 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



ations or terrain and which do not necessitate special adapta- 
tion to meet individual requirements, such as rations and 
forage. 

b. Class II. — Those authorized articles for which allowances 
are established by Tables of Basic Allowances and Tables of 
Allowances, such as clothing, gas masks, arms, trucks, radio 
sets, tools, and instruments. 

c. Class III. — Engine fuels and lubricants, including gaso- 
line for all vehicles and aircraft, Diesel oil, fuel oil, and coal. 

d. Class TV. — Those articles of supply which are not covered 
in Tables of Basic Allowances and demands for which are 
directly related to operations contemplated or in progress 
(except for articles in classes HI and V) , such as fortification 
materials, construction materials, and machinery. 

e. Class V. — Ammunition, pyrotechnics, antitank mines, and 
chemicals. (See also FM 10-5.) 

■ 7. Requisition. — Request for supplies, usually on a form 
furnished for the purpose. The word is also used to signify 
the purchase by demand of supplies in hostile occupied 
territory. 

■ 8. Credit. — Allocation .of a definite quantity of supplies 
which is placed at the disposal of the commander of an 
organization for a prescribed period of time. 

■ 9. Call. — Demand for delivery of supplies covered by 
credits. 

■ 10. Priorities. — Priorities are definite rulings which estab- 
lish, in order of time, the precedence of shipments and move- 
ments of rail, road, water, or air transport. 

■ 11. Reserves. — Supplies accumulated in excess of immedi- 
ate needs for the purpose of insuring continuity of adequate 
supply. Also designated as reserve supplies. 

a. Battle reserves are supplies accumulated by the army, 
detached corps, or detached division in the vicinity of the 
battlefield in addition to unit and individual reserves. 

b. Individual reserves are those carried on the soldier, ani- 
mal or vehicle for his or its individual use in emergency. 

c. Unit reserves are prescribed quantities or supplies car- 
ried as a reserve by a unit. 

■ 12. Balanced Stocks'. — Accumulation of supplies of all 
classes and in quantities determined as necessary to meet 
requirements for a fixed period of time. (See also FM 100-10.) 



8 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 13-16 

H 13. Units of Measure. — a. The term "day of supply" is the 
estimated average expenditure of the various items of supply 
per day in campaign, expressed in quantities of specific items 
or in pounds per man per day. It is a yardstick used by the 
-higher echelons of the staff for determining levels, credits, 
transportation requirements, etc. The quantities of the vari- 
ous items which, taken collectively, represent a day of sup- 
ply are determined on the recommendations of the respective 
supply services and of the using arms. These recommenda- 
tions are based on experience tables, the size and composition 
of the forces involved, the character of the operations, the 
nature of the enemy, and the climatic conditions of the 
theater of operations. 

b. A "unit of fire" for a designated organization or weapon 
is the quantity in rounds or tons of ammunition, bombs, 
grenades, and pyrotechnics which it may be expected to 
expend on the average in 1 day of combat. 

■ 14. Requirements. — Requirements are the computed needs 
for a military force, embracing all supplies necessary for its 
equipment, maintenance, and operation for a given period, 
and classified as individual, organizational, initial, mainte- 
nance, and reserve. 

a. Individual requirements are those supplies necessary to 
enable the individual to function as a soldier. 

b. Organizational requirements are those supplies neces- 
sary for the organization to function as a unit. 

c. Initial requirements are those supplies required to meet 
the original demands incident to field operations. 

d. Maintenance requirements are those supplies required 
to replace expenditures. 

e. Reserve requirements are those supplies necessary to 
meet emergency situations incident to campaign. 

■ 15. Automatic Supply. — The term "automatic supply" sig- 
nifies a process of supply under which deliveries of specific 
kinds and quantities of supplies are moved in accordance with 
a predetermined schedule. Daily automatic supply means 
that certain supplies are dispatched daily to an organization 
or installation. 

■ 16. Daily Telegram. — Telegram or other message dis- 
patched daily by divisions and larger units giving the unit's 
situation relative to supplies. A strength report is included. 



9 



16-23 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



The telegram is the basis on which class I and other supplies 
to be forwarded are computed. 

■ 17. Depot. — Organized locality for the reception, classifi- 
cation, storage, issue, or salvage of supplies, or for the recep- 
tion, classification, and forwarding of replacements. Arm or 
service depots pertain to a single arm or service and general 
depots pertain to two or more supply arms or services; for 
example, First Army Ammunition Depot No. 1 or Communi- 
cations Zone General Depot No. 3. (See also FM 100-10 and 
10-5.) 

■ 18. Supply Points. — The generic term used to include de- 
pots, railheads, distributing points, and dumps. 

■ 19. Distributing Point. — Place other than a depot or rail- 
head where supplies are issued to regiments and smaller units. 
Distributing points are designated by the class of supplies 
therein and by the identity of the unit etablishing them; for 
example, Class I Distributing Point, 1st Division, or Ammuni- 
tion Distributing Point, 1st Infantry. 

■ 20. Lines of Communication. — a. This includes the net- 
work of railways, waterways, and roads which lead into the 
combat zone from the supply and evacuation establishments 
located in the communications zone and the zone of the 
interior. • 

b. Railroads are the main arteries of supply and evacua- 
tion in the theater of operations. They are also the main 
connecting links in the chain of supply and evacuation be- 
tween the theater of operations and the zone of the interior, 
except in the case of oversea expeditions. Roads, inland 
waterways, and, at times, narrow-gage railways form impor- 
tant adjuncts to the standard-gage railways. 

■ 21. Regulating Station. — This is a traffic-control agency 
established on lines of communication and through which 
movements are directed and controlled by the commander of 
the theater of operations. 

■ 22. Railhead (Truckhead, Navigation Head). — A supply 
point where loads are transferred from particular type of 
transportation being employed; for example, Class I Rail- 
head, 1st Division; Gasoline and Oil Railhead; Ammunition 
Railheads, 1st and 2d Divisions. 

■ 23. Daily Train. — Train arriving daily at railhead with sup- 
plies for troops which the railhead serves. (See FM 100-10.) 



10 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 24r-25 



CHAPTER 2 

ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF QUARTERMASTER 
SERVICE IN COMMUNICATIONS ZONE 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Office of quartermaster, communications zone 24-29 

II. Operation of quartermaster service in communica- 
tions zone 30-32 

III. Depots 33-39 

IV. Regulating stations 40-50 

V. Railheads 51-56 



Section I 

OFFICE OF QUARTERMASTER, COMMUNICATIONS 
ZONE 

■ 24. General. — General headquarters (GHQ) is the desig- 
nation given the headquarters of the commander of the field 
forces. The commander of the field forces exercises com- 
mand over all of the theaters of operation, specifying, regu- 
lating, and coordinating the operations therein in accordance 
with the general policies prescribed by the President and un- 
der the general direction of the Secretary of War. He is as- 
sisted, as in all other large commands, in the performance of 
his duties by a general and special staff. One member of 
the special staff is designated the quartermaster, general 
headquarters. Similarly, on the staff of a commander of 
the theater of operations and the communications zone, there 
is a special staff officer designated as the quartermaster, the- 
ater of operations, and the quartermaster, communications 
zone, respectively. (See also FM 10-5.) 

■ 25. Duties of the Quartermaster Corps. — The Quarter- 
master Corps in the communications zone, under the super- 
vision of the quartermaster of the communications zone, is 
charged with the efficient conduct of the entire quartermaster 
system of supply and transportation to the theater of opera- 
tions, either directly or indirectly. This service includes — 



II 



25-26 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



a. The administration of all Quartermaster Corps activities 
In the communications zone. 

6. Procurement from the zone of the interior or from sources 
of supply in the theater of operations of all quartermaster 
supplies. 

e. Storage of quartermaster supplies in quartermaster 
branch depots and quartermaster sections of general depots 
in the communications zone. 

d. Distribution of quartermaster supplies to troops in the 
combat zone, based upon predetermined requirements or 
credits approved by the commanding general, theater of op- 
erations, and distribution to troops within the communica- 
tions zone based upon approved requisitions. 

e. Operation of salvage plants and concentration of mate- 
rial at salvage depots where repair, reclamation, and, at 
times, manufacture are conducted on an extensive scale. In 
this connection the service includes the supervision and op- 
eration of laundries and sterilization plants within the com- 
munications zone. 

/. Procurement, conditioning, care, and distribution of 
remounts. 

fir. Operation of the graves registration service, which ac- 
quires, maintains, and controls cemeteries; identifies the 
dead; registers burials; locates single graves and disposes of 
all personal effects of deceased personnel. 

h. Transportation service for personnel, animals, material, 
and supplies via rail, motor, animal, water, and air. (See 
also FM 101-5.) 

■ 26. Quartermaster, Communications Zone. — a. General 
duties. — The quartermaster, communications zone, is respon- 
sible for the quartermaster service in the communications 
zone, and his duties, in general, are — 

(1) Staff. — (a) Adviser to the commander and staff on mat- 
ters concerning quartermaster activities. 

(b) Planning, including estimates of requirements in sup- 
plies, equipment, personnel, and establishments. 

(e) Technical supervision and inspection, within the limits 
prescribed by his commander, of quartermaster activities in 
the communications zone. 



12 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP OPERATIONS 26 

(2) Command. — (a) Command of the quartermaster serv- 
ice within the communications zone. 

(b) The efficient operation of his service in accordance 
with the policies, plans,' and basic decisions of his commander. 

(3) This dual function has many advantages in facilitating 
the proper discharge of both staff and command duties. 
However, although vested in the same individual, one duty 
must not be confused with the other or permitted to interfere 
one with the other. The quartermaster, communications 
zone, should possess excellent leadership, executive ability, 
and a thorough understanding of strategical concentrations, 
tactical maneuvers, capabilities of combatant forces, and a 
detailed knowledge of the functions, and training and per- 
sonnel problems, of all quartermaster units. 

6. Specific duties. — The specific duties of the quartermaster, 
communications zone, are — 

(1) The administration and operation of all Quartermaster 
Corps branch depots, repair shops, or other establishments 
of the communications zone. 

(2) The operation of the quartermaster sections at general 
depots of the communications zone. 

(3) Provision, proper storage, and distribution of all sup- 
plies of standard manufacture and of all supplies common 
to two or more arms and services, including motor- and 
animal-drawn transport, except special or technical items to 
be used or issued exclusively by other supply services. 

(4) Shipment and reception of troops and supplies trans- 
ported by common carrier, including railways and inland 
waterways operated by the engineer service; transportation 
of troops and supplies, except such as may be allocated to 
another service; and the operation of motor transport estab- 
lishments, motor transport pools, army transport establish- 
ments, docks, and stevedore services. 

(5) Operation of bakeries, cold storage and ice plants, 
gardens, laundries, baths, shoe repair shops, salvage plants, 
paint shops, blacksmith shops, motor repair shops, fire pro- 
tection stations, baggage collection depots, cemeteries, and 
other quartermaster utilities. 

(6) Provision and operation of the labor service pool. 

(7) Provision and distribution of animal replacements. 



438624' — 42 2 



13 



26-27 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(8) Operation and maintenance of all quartermaster 
troops, trains, installations, establishments, utilities, and 
activities. 

(9) The maintenance of depot stocks at prescribed levels. 

(10) The keeping of records in such form that prompt re- 
port can be made whenever directed as to kind, quantity, 
location, and condition of supplies available for distribution. 

■ 27. Organization of Quartermaster's Office. — The office 
of the quartermaster normally is organized into three main 
divisions — administrative, supply, and transportation. (See 
rig. 2.) 

a. Administrative division. — The administrative division 
may be divided into the following branches: 

(1) Administrative branch. 

(2) Personnel branch. 

(3) Graves registration branch. 

b. Supply division. — The supply division may, if the work 
requires, be subdivided into branches. If the volume of work 
does not require it, some of these may be combined. The 
branches shown are — 

(1) Administrative branch. 

(2) Planning branch. 

(3) Procurement branch. 

(4) Salvage branch. 

(5) Subsistence (class I supplies) branch. 

(6) Clothing and equipage (class n supplies) branch. 

(7) Remount branch. 

(8) Miscellaneous branch. 

(9) Gasoline and oil branch. 

c. Transportation division. — The transportation division 
may be divided into the following branches, whenever the 
volume of work requires: 

(1) Administrative branch. 

(2) Planning branch. 

(3) Rail transport branch. 

(4) Motor transport branch. 

(5) Animal transport branch. 

(6) Water (and air) branch. 

(7) Traffic branch. 



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27 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



d. This organization may be expanded into more than 
three divisions in time of war and some of the branches may 
become divisions, and some of the sections may become 
branches. 

e. Functions of the administrative division, — (1) Adminis- 
trative branch. — This branch handles all records, mail, tele- 
grams, cablegrams, and messenger service; prepares plans 
for training Quartermaster Corps personnel; handles all mat- 
ters pertaining to inspection of quartermaster activities; pre- 
pares estimates of funds; and maintains historical data. 

(2) Personnel branch. — This branch procures quartermas- 
ter replacements from the zone of the interior and makes 
assignments and distribution of the replacements upon their 
arrival in the communications zone. The personnel branch 
exercises no control over personnel destined for the combat 
zone after it has reached the regulating station. ^ 

(3) Graves registration branch. — This branch acquires, 
maintains, and controls cemeteries; identifies the dead; reg- 
isters burials; locates graves; and disposes of all the personal 
effects of the deceased. 

f. Functions of the supply division. — The functions of the 
supply division are the procuring, storage, distribution, and 
salvage of quartermaster supplies. The various branches, 
for example, subsistence, clothing and equipage, gasoline and 
oil, salvage and miscellaneous, perform the functions as indi- 
cated by their classifications. 

g. Functions of the transportation division. — The functions 
of the transportation division are to handle traffic matters; 
furnish, operate, and maintain all motor and animal trans- 
port required; and provide for movement of troops and sup- 
plies by all means of transportation. 

(1) Maintenance. — The maintenance of motor and truck 
transportation is the responsibility of the Quartermaster 
Corps under the supervision of the commander of the com- 
munications zone. ' 

(2) Motor transport. — The motor transport pool is oper- 
ated under the supervision of a motor transport service of- 
ficer on the staff of the chief quartermaster, communications 
zone. Animal transportation may supplement motor trans- 
portation. 

(3) Air transport. — Air transport includes all means of 
transportation by airships or airplanes. In the theater of 



16 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 27-29 

operations its use, as far as the Quartermaster Corps is con- 
cerned, is ordinarily limited to emergency transport, where 
time is extremely important, of mail, ammunition, com- 
mander's staff officers, couriers, urgent supplies, and possibly 
detachments. 

■ 28. Installations. — Within the communications zone the 
following quartermaster installations or establishments may 
be operated, either in their entirety or in part: 

a. Supply. — (1) Quartermaster depots. 

(2) Quartermaster section of general depots. 

(3) Salvage depots. 

(4) General sales stores. 

(5) Gasoline and oil depots. 

(6) Filling stations. 

(7) Bakeries. 

(8) Cold storage and refrigerator plants. 

(9) Shoe and textile repair shops. 

b. Transportation. — (1) Army Transport Service. 

(2) Motor transport service. 

(3) Commercial traffic service. 

(4) Animal transportation units. 

c. Personnel. — (1) Quartermaster replacement depots. 

(2) Provide training cadres at quartermaster replacement 
depots, in event replacements received require additional 
training. 

d. Remount. — (1) Remount depots. 

(2) Advance remount replacement depots. 

■ 29. Units. — The following quartermaster units may operate 
within the communications zone: 

a. Supply. — The following units may operate the various 
supply installations and establishments within the communi- 
cations zone : 

(1) Quartermaster service battalions and companies. 

(2) Bakery battalions or companies. 

(3) Depot (supply) companies. 

(4) Gasoline supply battalions or companies. 

(5) Graves registration companies. 

(6) Laundry battalions or companies. 

(7) Refrigeration companies. 

(8) Sales commissary companies. 

(9) Salvage depot and collecting companies. 



17 



29-30 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(10) Shoe and textile repair (mobile) companies. 

(11) Sterilization and bath battalions or companies. 

(12) Truck regiments, battalions, and companies. 

(13) Railhead companies. 

b. Transportation. — (1) Motor transport operating units. 

(2) Motor transport maintenance units. 

(3) Quartermaster service, GHQ Air Force. 

(4) Port of embarkation (debarkation). 

(5) Port battalions and companies. 

c. Personnel. — Replacement depot units. 

d. Remount. — Remount squadrons or troops. 

e. Animal transport. — (1) Wagon battalions and companies. 
(2) Pack troops. 

Section II 



OPERATION OP QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN 
COMMUNICATIONS ZONE 

■ 30. Personnel. — a. Requirements. — The study of require- 
ments for quartermaster units and miscellaneous personnel, 
commissioned, enlisted, or civilian, is made in a series of 
phases in which the ratio of personnel pertaining to the 
different administrative services and to combat divisions en 
route from the zone of the interior is determined by head- 
quarters, theater of operations, and the details for those re- 
lating to the quartermaster service are worked out by the 
personnel section, quartermaster, communications zone. 
These studies are sent to the zone of the interior where the 
units and miscellaneous personnel are organized, trained, 
and prepared for service in the theater of operations. 

b. Procurement. — (1) Procurement of personnel from the 
zone of the interior is handled by means of the requirements 
program and special calls. 

(2) Procurement of personnel from local sources is confined 
to transfers of officers and enlisted men from other branches 
of the Army and the hire of civilian employees. Civilian 
employees are hired by the quartermaster depots and stations 
according to local needs, as authorized by the quartermaster, 
communications zone (personnel section). Civilians em- 
ployed in the office of the communications zone quarter- 
master, principally stenographers, typists, and clerks, are 



18 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 30-31 

hired by the personnel section which keeps the records 
pertaining to them. This class of employees is procured 
from the zone of the interior, or, when operations are con- 
ducted in friendly territory, in part from the local inhabi- 
tants. 

(3) Replacement depots. — Upon arrival of units in the com- 
munications zone, they are given assignments by the person- 
nel section and they then proceed to their destinations. 
Units for which no special assignment is immediately avail- 
able, and all commissioned and enlisted personnel not as- 
signed to units are routed to replacement depots. Upon 
arrival at these depots, casual officers and men are classified 
according to individual qualifications. Their qualification 
cards are then forwarded to the personnel section, office of the 
quartermaster, communications zone, and form a basis for 
future assignments. 

c. Distribution. — (1) All requisitions for quartermaster 
personnel, including replacements, are received by the office 
of the quartermaster, communications zone. They are filled 
from the pool at the replacement depot or by the transfer 
of personnel from other assignments, according to the quali- 
fications required. It will be necessary for the personnel 
section to exercise close supervision over all assigned per- 
sonnel within the communications zone so as to determine 
from which points it can best be spared to meet urgent calls. 

(2) The personnel section exercises no control over per- 
sonnel destined for the combat zone after it has reached the 
regulating station. Records are maintained, however, as to 
the assignments of every officer and enlisted man both in the 
combat zone (by unit) and in the communications zone (by 
unit and station) . As occasion demands, personnel in the 
communications zone is redistributed by the quartermaster, 
communications zone, with the approval of G-l, communi- 
cations zone. 

■ 31. Supply. — a. Requirements.-— -The determination of 
supply requirements under the policies established by head- 
quarters, theater of operations, is made by the supply divi- 
sion of the quartermaster's office, in coordination with G-4, 
communications zone. 

b. Procurement. — (1) Most of the supplies are secured from 
the zone of the interior and are based on requirements and 
special requisitions. 

19 



31 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(2) Some supplies are procured from sources in the theater 
of operations, either by purchase or by requisition. 

c. Storage. — The supply division supervises the operations 
of all quartermaster branch depots, and quartermaster sec- 
tions of general depots in the communications zone. These 
depots are exempted from the control of section commanders 
except for discipline, fire protection, and other matters per- 
taining to routine administration. 

d. Distribution. — (1) Within communications zone. — Requi- 
sitions for quartermaster supplies prepared by organizations 
stationed in the communications zone are submitted through 
local quartermasters to section quartermasters of the com- 
munications zone and in the event credits have not been 
established, transmitted by the latter to the communications 
zone quartermaster's office (supply division) for approval. 
After approval they are transmitted to the proper depots for 
filling. In the event credits have been established for units 
or sections, the using agency procures the supplies by means 
of a call or draft from the proper depot. 

(2) Class I supplies. — The requisition for class I supplies, 
when on an automatic basis, is known as the daily telegram. 
The army receives daily telegrams which give the strength of 
its divisions and corps troops. These telegrams are con- 
solidated by the army quartermaster who adds to these figures 
the strength of the army troops. He then forwards this 
consolidated daily telegram to the regulating officer. The 
regulating officer then calls upon the designated depots of 
the communications zone for the necessary supplies. These 
depots in turn ship in bulk the required supplies to the regu- 
lating officer who sorts them into division and similar unit 
lots and forwards them by the daily train to the proper 
railhead. (For details see ch. 2, pt. EL) 

(3) Class III supplies. — (a) Gasoline and oil supply depots 
are established at convenient locations throughout the com- 
munications zone. They should be located at points where 
there are adequate rail and highway facilities. These depots 
ship gasoline and oil to the regulating station in either tank 
cars, tank trucks, or 10-gallon containers, upon call from 
the regulating officer. The regulating officer, based upon re- 
quests submitted through the medium of the daily telegram, 
will forward this gasoline and oil to designated gasoline and 
oil railheads or truckheads. He may also attach gasoline and 



20 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 



31 



oil cars to the unit section of the daily train, but this should 
be done only under exceptional circumstances, because of the 
danger of Are which might destroy the entire train. 

(b) Filling stations. — Gasoline and oil filling stations will 
be established at all depots and other supply points through- 
out the communications zone and at such other locations 
along the main highways to provide an adequate number of 
gasoline and oil supply points throughout the entire communi- 
cations zone. Gasoline and oil supply units should make 
frequent deliveries of gasoline and oil to these filling stations. 

(c) Gasoline and oil supply units. — Sufficient gasoline and 
oil supply companies or battalions must be assigned to the 
communications zone to provide adequate supply of gasoline 
and oil to all supply points in the communications zone. 
These units, and such additional units from GHQ as may be 
required, may be used to supplement the gasoline and oil 
deliveries to the combat zone whenever the situation requires 
it. 

(4) Class II and class IV supplies. — (a) Credits may be 
established in the communications zone depots by the theater 
commander for designated units. When such credits have 
been established, the army or other units may draw supplies 
by submitting a draft or call, either upon the regulating 
officer, or upon the designated depot. In the event the call 
is made through the regulating officer, he ships the supplies 
by rail to a designated railhead or truckhead. If the call is 
made direct on a depot the supplies may be transported by 
trucks furnished by the unit making the call. In the event 
the call is made through the regulating officer, and the rail 
lines are interrupted, he must arrange with the motor trans- 
port service to forward the supplies by truck. 

(b) In the event credits have not been established, or have 
become exhausted, the army will submit requisitions, ap- 
proved by the army commander, to the regulating officer or 
to the quartermaster, communications zone. If the supplies 
are available, they will be forwarded either by rail or truck 
to the designated supply point. If the supplies are not avail- 
able in the designated depot, the unfilled items will be ex- 
tracted to the quartermaster, communications zone, who will 
designate other depots where the supplies are available. 

(c) The demand for class IV supplies varies between wide 
limits, and as the supplies in the theater are usually limited, 



21 



31-32 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



credits should be established only when the situation clearly 
demands it. Owing to the limited quantities available, sup- 
plies of this class will normally be procured through 
requisitions approved by the theater commander. 

e. Salvage. — The quartermaster, communications zone, op- 
erates all salvage plants and depots within the communica- 
tions zone. The collection of salvage within the combat zone 
is an army function. All unserviceable quartermaster and 
miscellaneous material is concentrated at salvage depots 
where repairs are conducted on an extensive scale and where 
some manufacturing is done. In connection with these ac- 
tivities the quartermaster supervises the operation of laun- 
dries and sterilization and bath units. 

■ 32. Transportation. — a. Rail shipments. — The operation 
of military railways is a function of the Corps of Engineers. 
The quartermaster is charged, however, with arranging with 
the operating agency in the theater of operations for the 
shipment of all troops and supplies by rail. 

b. Water transportation. — The quartermaster service op- 
erates such water transportation of the Army Transport 
Service and the harbor boat service of the Quartermaster 
Corps as may be assigned to the theater of operations. 

c. Motor transportation. — The motor transport activities 
of the quartermaster service consist of — 

(1) The operation of motor transport of the quartermaster 
service. 

(2) The third and fourth echelon maintenance of the mo- 
tor transport of the quartermaster service and of units of 
the combat arms and other services equipped with motor 
vehicles supplied by the Quartermaster Corps. 

(3) The operation of motor transport centers and sub- 
centers. 

(4) Procurement and distribution of motor vehicles, unit 
assemblies, spare parts, and automotive operating and main- 
tenance supplies. (See pars. 82 to 85, incl., of this manual 
and FM 100-10 and 10-5.) 



22 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 33-34 

Section in 
DEPOTS 

■ 33. General. — Field Service Regulations define an army 
depot as a supply point designated as such by the army com- 
mander and located in the army area where the temporary 
storage of supplies that the situation demands is maintained 
nearer at hand than is possible in the advance section of the 
communications zone and for the storage of supplies requisi- 
tioned in the combat zone. Supplies maintained in the army 
area are ordinarily limited in character to those essential to 
maintain combat efficiency and in quantity to that required 
to meet the needs of the army for a period not exceeding 
a few days. Therefore, an army depot should not be estab- 
lished unless the situation clearly demands it, and the army 
should always look to the communications zone for replenish- 
ment of supplies. (See also FM 100-10.) 

■ 34. Depots. — Depots within the communications zone may 
be classified under three heads. Advanced depots are al- 
ways organized, even though the communications zone may 
be shallow in depth. Base depots are established when the 
communications zone is of considerable depth, and inter- 
mediate depots may be established when the communications 
zone is of great depth. The order of these depots from front 
to rear is advanced, intermediate, and base. Figure 3 shows 
a schematic diagram of depots and regulating stations within 
the theater of operations. All depots designated within the 
combat zone are army depots. The smaller circles within 
the communications zone indicate the advanced depots, the 
next larger circles the intermediate depots, and the largest 
circles the base depots. Depots within a communications 
zone may be either general or branch. General depots are 
organized so as to provide a supply section for each of the 
services. The branch depots, however, are organized so as to 
house only one service. Depots within the communications 
zone are numbered serially, a separate series of numbers 
being assigned to the general depots and a separate series 
for the branch depots for each of the services, for example, 
Communications Zone General Depot No. 3, or Communica- 
tions Zone Quartermaster Depot No. 1. 



23 



36-36 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



■ 35. Location of Depots. — Advance depots should be located 
as far forward in the communications zone as the situation 
permits. All depots should be located along the lines of com- 
munication, preferably along railroad lines. These should 
also be located so as to provide a good highway net to the 
combat zone. In addition, if possible, either standard or nar- 
row gage railways should be available to transport supplies 
to the combat zone. (See FM 100-10.) 




■ 36. Organization of Communications Zone. — a. General 
depots. — General depots in the communications zone are or- 
ganized so as to provide a supply section for each of the 
services. Each section is designated by the name of the 
supply service to which it pertains, for example, ordnance 
section, quartermaster section, etc. The general depot is com- 
manded by an officer designated by the commander of the 
communications zone and operates directly under the com- 
munications zone commander. The internal management 
of the respective supply sections is left to the chief of that 
section, under the chief of that service, but the activities of 
the depot are generally coordinated by the depot commander. 

b. Quartermaster depots. — A commanding officer of the de- 
pot is designated by the commander of the communications 
zone. The office should be divided into three divisions — ad- 



24 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 




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25 



36-37 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



ministration, supply, and depot quartermaster. The depot 
quartermaster division operates the local depot supply and 
motor transportation, and provides for the upkeep of the 
depot, including the maintenance of roads. The supply divi- 
sion provides the necessary personnel to operate the re- 
ceipt, storage, and issue of quartermaster supplies. The ad- 
ministration division, operating under the executive officer, 
provides the personnel for administering to the needs of the 
depot. A typical layout for a quartermaster supply depot is 
given in figure 4. Any layout for a depot should provide space 
for an office, warehousing of small packages which should be 
under cover, a railway station, and ample parking space for 
vehicles. There should also be ample space for open storage. 
The open storage piles should permit the passing of vehicles 
between each pile in all directions. The piles should not be 
too high nor spread over too much ground. Railroad facili- 
ties should be available for the movement of supplies to and 
from the depot. There should be ample turn-around facilities 
for vehicles around the tracks and enclosed warehouses. 

■ 37. Operations. — a. As the supply system must be flexible 
to meet the constantly changing situations, so must the or- 
ganization and operation of the quartermaster depots be 
flexible and assure that troops in the combat zone can secure 
the required supplies promptly and on short .notice. In order 
to accomplish this, requisitions must be reduced to a mini- 
mum and the method of issue so simplified that any essential 
article can be issued without delay. 

b. Quartermaster depots may be required to operate under 
either of the following systems : 

(1) Credits may be set up in the depot upon the order of 
the theater commander. These credits may be allotted for 
either the army as a whole or for the various divisions or corps 
and army troops of the army. These credits may be set up 
in terms of days of supply of the various items and will be 
available to the limit of established credits. Upon call by 
the unit to which the credits have been allocated, the depots 
must be prepared to ship by rail to the appointed supply point 
any supplies called for under the terms of the credit, or to 
issue at the depot to vehicles of the unit concerned any sup- 
plies desired. 



26 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 37-39 

(2) When credits have not been established, all supplies 
are secured through the medium of requisitions and must bear 
the approval of the army quartermaster and the quarter- 
master, communications zone. As soon as the supplies have 
been made available within the various depots, the requisi- 
tioning agency may send organic transportation to the depot 
to draw the supplies, or may request that the supplies be 
shipped by rail to a designated railhead or by motor convoy 
to a designated truckhead. 

c. When supplies are not available within the depot, the 
depot commander should extract the unfilled requisitions 





THEATER OF WAR 













■* THEATER. OF OPERATIONS 




ZONE OF 
INTERIOR 


COMMUNICATIONS 
ZONE 


COMBAT 
ZONE 


6-12 MONTHS' RE- 
SERVE SUPPLIES 

^^^EPOT^^^ 


1-S MONTHS' CURRENT SUPPLIES 
ECHELONED III DEPTH . LARGE STOCKS 
IN REAR, PROGRESSIVELY SMALLER 
STOCKS TOWARD FRONT . 

^^EPOT^ ^BPO^ 


2-4 DAYS' 
IMMEDIATE 
SUPPLIES III 
ARMY (BRANCH) 
DEPOTS . ALSO 
ROLLING RE- 
SERVES PRiN- 
cnyuxY* cuss 

©I AND AM- 
MUNITION ON 
DIVISION 4 
CORPS TRAINS. 



Figure 5. — Echelonment of supplies in theater of war. 



to the communications zone quartermaster, who will desig- 
nate other depots to fill them, or call on the zone of interior 
for the supplies. 

■ 38. Stockages. — Normally there will be from 1 to 3 months 
of current supplies echeloned in depth from the largest 
stocks in the rearmost depot to the smaller stocks toward the 
front. In addition to the supplies maintained in the com- 
munications zone, a few days of immediate supplies are usu- 
ally held available in army depots. Figure 5 shows the 
echelonment of supplies stocked in the various depots. 

■ 39. Quartermaster Company Depot (Supply) .—a. This is 
the administrative and technical unit for operating a quarter- 
master supply depot other than motor transport and remount. 



27 



39-40 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



It has the capacity to supply all classes of quartermaster 
supply, except animals and motor transports, to maintain 
60,000 men under war conditions. Two or more companies 
can be combined to supply personnel to the larger depots in 
the communications zone. The company is divided into a 
company headquarters, a depot headquarters platoon, and a 
storage platoon. The company is commanded by a captain 
who supervises the administrative and record work of the 
depot. 

b. The company headquarters provides the personnel for 
the interior economy of the company, including messing, 
supplies, and clerical work. 

c. The depot headquarters platoon furnishes the per- 
sonnel required to handle the clerical work of the depot and 
to maintain the depot utilities. Sufficient office personnel 
is provided so as to permit organization of the depot along 
commodity lines, one section for subsistence, one for 
clothing and equipage, and one for general supplies. 

d. The storage platoon furnishes the personnel necessary 
for the receipt, storage, warehousing, and issue of supplies 
in the depot. (See T/O 10-227.) 

Section IV 

REGULATING STATIONS 

■ 40. General. — Regulating stations are traffic control agen-. 
cies designed to maintain regularity in supply and evacua- 
tion movements to, within, and from the combat zone, com- 
munications zone, and, when necessary, from the zone of the 
interior to the theater of operations. 

a. Regulating stations are established on the lines of com- 
munication. They are provided usually at the rate of one 
for each army or similar command. Each of the regulating 
stations serves a definite area of the combat zone delimited 
on the basis of the available lines of communication, the 
strength of the forces involved, and the capacity of the 
station. If conditions permit, each area should be coincident 
with an army area in the combat zone. 

b. Regulating officers operate under the orders of the 
theater commanders as traffic control agencies. 

C. Owing to the dangers of interruption of railway trans- 
portation by hostile aircraft, it is necessary to supplement 



28 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 40-41 

the railway transportation service. Motor transportation is 
ideally suited for this, and a representative of the motor 
transport service should be on the staff of all regulating offi- 
cers. Detailed plans should be prepared for the prompt sub- 
stitution of motor service when railroad transportation is 
disrupted. In such a contingency the regulating officer will 
also have authority under general control of the theater 
headquarters to control all road traffic between the 
communications zone and the army service area. 

d. Even though all lines are functioning normally, less than 
carload lots of supplies may often be shipped from the com- 
munications zone depot to army depots by motor rather than 
by rail. The coordination of this type of shipments will be 
handled by the motor transport officer on the staff of the 
regulating officer. (See FM 100-10.) 

H 41. Relationship Between Regulating Officer, Theater 
Commander, and Commanders of Communications Zone and 
Army. — The regulating officer is the direct representative of 
the commander of the theater of operations, and operates 
under his orders. 

a. The communications zone commander is responsible for 
the maintenance of stocks in the depots supplying the combat 
zone and for the operation of the military railway service. 
Under policies formulated by theater headquarters, he desig- 
nates the depots in which the army is given credits, the loca- 
tions to which salvage is to be evacuated, and the number 
of trains and other railway equipment to be made available 
to the regulating officer. 

b. The principal job of the regulating officer is to meet the 
needs of the army for supply and evacuation within the limi- 
tations of the facilities at his disposition. He must be kept 
informed of pending operations and contemplated changes in 
locations of army depots and railheads. 

c. The regulating station must be in direct communication 
with theater headquarters. It must be in close touch at all 
times with communications zone headquarters and installa- 
tions. Between the regulating station and army headquar- 
ters and depots there should be a continued interchange of 
information and advice. The regulating station system pro- 
vides the elasticity, mobility, safety, and secrecy essential to 
large scale operations in modern warfare, and provides the 



438624°-^12- 



29 



41-42 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



commander of the theater of operations the desired degree of 
control over movements of troops, supplies, and evacuation. 

d. Figure 6 shows the relationship between the regulating 
officer, the commanding general of the theater of operations, 
the army commander, and the commanding general of the 
communications zone. Command is exercised by the com- 
manding general, theater of operations, through the com- 
manding general of the communications zone, the regulating 
officer, and the army commander. The regulating officer's 
primary function is the coordination of supplies between the 
communications zone and the army. (See also PM 100-10.) 



COllHANDrHO GENERAL 
THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



COHDG. GENERAL 
COMMUNICATIONS 
ZONE 



QUARTER- 
MASTER 
THEATER 
OF 

OPERATIONS 



'///, REGULATING-? 



COORDINATION OP SUPPLY 



// OFFICER i 
' "•• • " ' 



ARMY 
COMMANDER 



QUARTERMASTER 
CWATONICATSOKS 
ZONE 



ARMY 
QUARTERMASTER 
* 



TECHNICAL 



CONTROL 



FiGuitE 6. — Regulating officer's relationship to theater of operations 
commanders and quartermasters. 



■ 42. Kinds of Regulating Stations. — a. There are two kinds 
of regulating stations, primary and secondary. 

(1) Secondary stations are temporary in character, con- 
sisting essentially of sufficient tracks to allow trains, made up 
for divisions at the communications zone depots, to be 
switched as necessary and routed to their railheads. 

(2) Primary regulating stations, on the other hand, are 
of a more permanent character and have yard and switching 
facilities, when possible, at the junction point of several routes 
leading, from the various depots and installations in the rear 
from which supplies and replacements are drawn. 

b. Secondary regulating stations represent the first effort 
of the Military forces operating in a theater ef operations to 



30 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 42-44 

relieve congestion at the depots by establishing the place for 
regulation of trains at least several miles from the depots and 
at points convenient to the front. They may also be used 
in the rapid advance of mobile warfare. Since this type of 
station has no facilities normally for the make-up of trains, 
the daily trains are made up, as far as possible, at the depots, 
cars being added, as necessary, with class n, HI, and IV sup- 
plies when such supplies are shipped to railheads. (See also 
TM 5-400.) 

■ 43. Location. — Flexibility and mobility in the use of the 
communications net are obtained by establishing regulating 
stations in the communications zone at or near the rear 
boundary of the combat zone and, when necessary, at or near 
the rear boundary of the theater of operations. When the 
situation permits, a regulating station should be established 
at a location where the necessary facilities exist or can be 
quickly provided. Preferably, it should be located at a junc- 
tion of two or more routes leading from the supply and 
evacuation establishments in rear of the combat zone. It is 
also desirable that two or more separate routes lead to the 
area served by the station. It should be linked with other 
regulating stations so that traffic may be maneuvered laterally 
as well as to and from the combat zone. The regulating 
station should be located near enough to the combat zone to 
enable trains departing about dark, to arrive at their destina- 
tion before daylight. It must also be far enough to the rear 
to be reasonably safe from enemy activities. (See PM 
100-10.) 

■ 44. Organization. — An outline of a regulating station or- 
ganization is shown in FM 100-10. A tentative- functional 
diagram of a regulating station organization is shown in figure 
7; however, this figure is merely to indicate a type set-up to 
be modified as required. 

a. The regulating officer commands the station. He is the 
direct representative of the commander of the theater of 
operations and responsible only to him. He is provided with 
the necessary operating personnel and suitable staff assistants. 
He is responsible for the systematic and orderly movement 
of supplies and reinforcements from the regulating station 
to the front and for the movement by rail of the sick and 
wounded men and animals, prisoners of war, and materiel to 
the rear. 

31 



REGULATING OFFICER 



EXECUTIVE SECTION 

Routine administration. 

Telegrams. 

Correspondence. 

Has functions of a post headquar- 
ters. 



SUPPLY SECTION 



Responsible for shipment class I 
supplies. 

Receives daily telegram calling on 
depots for supplies. 

Handles requisitions for other sup- 
plies. 

Responsible for reserves — station 
and railhead. 



RAIL TRANSPORTATION 
SECTION 

Physical handling of railroad 

equipment. 
Make-up of trains. 
Controls rail transportation offices 

in army area. 



EVACUATION SECTION 

Control of hospital trains. 

Handles sick .and wounded. 

Reports from communications 
zone as to bed space in base hos- 
pitals. 



DISPOSITION SECTION 

Car record bureau. 
Keeps order of battle and location 
lists. 

Gives transportation disposition 
sheets as to all organizations in 
army. 



TROOP MOVEMENT SECTION 



Arranges for transportation of 
troops and casuals both in and 
out of army. 



Quartermaster 



Ordnance 



Engineer- 



Signal 



Medical 



Chemical 
warfare 



Air Corps 



Figure 7.— Functional diagram of a primary regulating station 
organization. 



32 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP OPERATIONS 44-45 

b. A superintendent of the military railway service is as- 
signed to the staff of the regulating officer. He is directly 
responsible for the movement of all trains in accordance with 
the instructions and priorities received from the regulating 
officer. 

c. The quartermaster transportation section should have a 
troop movement branch and supply movement branch. This 
section receives the requests for rail movements, assembles 
the requirements for railway transport, arranges with the 
superintendent, military railways, for the necessary move- 
ments, and insures that movements to the combat zone are 
in accordance with priorities established by the regulating 
officer. 

d. The medical evacuation section, under a medical officer, 
is charged with effecting the necessary arrangements for 
the movement of sick and wounded men and animals from 
army evacuation hospitals to general hospitals in the com- 
munications zone. The evacuation of men is accomplished 
by the use of specially equipped hospital trains placed at 
the disposition of the regulating officer. This section main- 
tains a record of the credits in beds in the communications 
zone hospitals. The evacuation of animals is usually made 
in stock trains. 

e. Each supply section is in charge of a representative of 
the particular chief of supply service concerned. Each has, 
in general, the functions of any supply office. It receives 
requests from the army, transmits the tonnage, car, or train 
requirements to the quartermaster transportation section, 
follows up the arrangements made for shipping, and notifies 
the army when shipments may be expected. 

/. The adjutant's section is responsible for making arrange- 
ments, through the quartermaster transportation section, 
for the movement of personnel replacements, adjutant's de- 
partment supplies, and mail. It follows up these shipments 
and advises the army when they may be expected to arrive. 
Normally the chief of this section will have charge of the 
postal regulating station which handles the reception and 
sorting of mail dispatched to or from the combat zone. 

■ 45. Installations,— For a regulating station serving an 
army, when possible, there should be provided approximately 
four receiving tracks, eight classification tracks, eight de- 



33 



45-46 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



parture tracks, four storage tracks for reserve supplies, two 
extra tracks for emergencies, and two tracks for bad order 
cars. Each of these tracks should be able to accommodate 
a full standard train length. In addition, there should be 
provided about 2 miles of track for engine overhaul facilities 
and about 2 miles of track for switching facilities for the 
services having stocks of emergency supplies at the regulating 
station. (See FM 100-10.) 

a. In addition to the necessary trackage and switching fa- 
cilities, a regulating station will require storage space for the 
supply of the personnel of the station; a warehouse or freight 
shed for handling mail, baggage, express, and less than 
carload shipments; another for handling small components 
of the ration, if these are not received from the depots 
packed in unit sections; and facilities for handling casuals 
and prisoners of war. 

b. Since a regulating station is primarily a traffic control 
agency, large depots should not be located near it. The 
transloading of supplies for storage and issue is not a normal 
function of the regulating station, and will cause such a 
congestion as to defeat the object of the regulating station. 

■ 46. Operation. — Class I supplies are received at the 
regulating station in several ways: 

a. In unit sections of the daily train, each section loaded 
with 1 day of supply for the specific organization to which 
assigned. This method is preferred when the situation per- 
mits, as the unit sections, as soon as checked, can be shifted 
to the departure tracks where cars containing mail, casuals, 
or other supplies are added. This method greatly simplifies 
the operations of the regulating station. 

b. In unit sections of the daily train, each section loaded 
with 1 day of supply for units approximating the strength 
of a division. This simplifies the operations at the communi- 
cations zone depot, and gives greater flexibility in the use 
of the unit sections by the regulating station. 

c. In bulk train shipments, each train being loaded with 
carloads of but one kind of supply, such as bread, meat, other 
ration items, hay, grain, gasoline, or oil. 

d. A combination of a or b and c, daily train sections being 
limited to 1 day of supply of designated ration items, other 
items being received in bulk train shipments. 

e. Figure 8 shows the schematic method of operating the 

34 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 



46 



regulating station with reference to class I supplies. The 
various train loads of rations and other components of class 
I and HI supplies are received at the regulating station where 
they are broken down and sorted into unit lots for the 
daily train. 

/. When trains are received at the regulating station under 
c or d method, they are taken at once to the receiving tracks 
of a regulating station. There the cars are checked by num- 
bers and by contents; when the checking operation is com- 
pleted the train is broken up. Cars, the contents of which 
have to be rehandled before attachment to the daily supply 
trains, are switched on the sidings which serve the mobile 
storage installations of the Quartermaster Corps or other 
supply services, or they are placed 'on the siding where less 
than carload (LCD shipments are handled. 

g. Loaded cars which do not have to be rehandled before 
entering into the composition of a daily train are shunted to 
the classification tracks marked "F" on the diagram. The 
tracks in this yard are specialized by commodities. In other 
words, one track will have on it only cars of oats, another 
track, cars of hay, another, cars of bread, etc. 

h. The unit sections of a daily train are made up in the 
classification yard "F" by taking the proper number of cars 
from each track. To these cars are added those containing 
mail, other supplies, casuals, or less than carload shipments. 
When such sections are made up they are switched to the 
departure yard "A" where they remain until their departure 
for the railheads. Only at the last moment are cars con- 
taining personnel, animals, or mail attached to the waiting 
supply trains. These daily trains are run on regular schedules, 
and should be so timed as to arrive at the railhead preferably 
not later than midnight. Immediately upon the departure 
of each daily train from the regulating station the railhead 
officer concerned is given information of the departure of 
the train and is advised as to the car numbers and the con- 
tents of each car. It is desirable that all locomotives be used 
to their full capacity, and for this reason when the rail net 
serves more than one division, a daily supply train usually 
is made up of two or three unit sections. 

i. Upon the return of the supply trains to the regulating 
station, inverse operations to those described in the preceding 
paragraphs are not generally the case. Only cars bringing 



35 




36 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP OPERATIONS 46-49 

back supplies or materials which are to be held temporarily 
at the regulating station are allowed to remain there. All 
empty cars remain at the regulating station as short a time 
as possible and are sent to large railway centers in the com- 
munications zone. 

■ 47. Ammunition and Bulk Supplies. — Shipments of ammu- 
nition, engineer supplies, such as road-building material, and 
other bulk supplies, are handled, as far as possible, by com- 
plete train shipments. Depots in the communications zone 
load complete trainloads of ammunition and other bulk sup- 
plies, and those trains are moved without delay direct through 
the regulating station, or preferably around it, to the proper 
supply points. Under no circumstances are ammunition 
trains stored in the regulating stations. When mobile re- 
serves of ammunition and gasoline are required to be tem- 
porarily stored in the vicinity of the regulating station, they 
should be stored a few miles away from the station itself. 

■ 48. Evacuation. — The evacuation of sick and wounded is 
handled by the employment of specially equipped hospital 
trains which are assigned to and controlled by the regulating 
station. These trains are routed forward to army evacuation 
hospitals and from there back to general hospitals in the 
communications zone or zone of the interior, through the reg- 
ulating station. When casualties have been heavy the regu- 
lating officer may have to use any empty rolling stock which 
is in his yards to make up special trains for evacuation. The 
medical officer on the staff of the regulating officer is given 
credits by the surgeon, communications zone, under policies 
formulated by theater headquarters, in numbers of beds in 
various hospitals in the communications zone or the zone 
of the interior. He receives information from the army of 
the cases to be evacuated from the various hospitals and he 
then arranges with the superintendent, military railway serv- 
ice, for the dispatch of hospital trains which are held on sid- 
ings at strategical points near the regulating station. The 
evacuation of sick and wounded animals is handled in a 
similar manner, using stock trains specially fitted up for the 
purpose. 

■ 49. Personnel. — Replacements should not be sent in as 
individuals. They should be formed into detachments at the 
replacement depots, under an officer or noncommissioned 

37 



49-52 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



officer for particular units. Much confusion and congestion 
would be caused at regulating stations by detraining casuals 
and replacements and sorting them out for dispatch to their 
proper organizations. Large troop movements are handled 
by the regulating officer just as any other movement into 
or from the combat zone. If possible, however, it is desirable 
to route these trains around the regulating station. 

■ 50. Motor or Animal Transportation. — The fundamental 
factors governing the organization and establishment of reg- 
ulating stations on the rail net are applicable to organized 
roadways when it is necessary to employ motor or. animal- 
drawn transport columns to supplement the railways between 
the communications zone and the combat zone. In .order to 
meet the conditions so imposed, motor or animal-drawn 
transport columns are organized in the communications zone 
and dispatched through regulating stations established at 
points best located to meet the needs of the combat troops. 
Under these conditions, regulating stations are pushed as far 
forward as safety permits. 

Section V 
RAILHEADS 

■ 51. General. — A railhead is a point on a railroad desig- 
nated as such which provides rail accommodations for the 
unit it is designated to serve. Railheads are agencies of the 
regulating station and are operated by quartermaster railhead 
companies under the supervision of the regulating officer. 
The responsibility of the regulating officer for supplies begins 
when the supplies have been turned over to him by the 
communications zone. The regulating officer's responsibility 
ceases when he has delivered the supplies to the troops at 
the proper railhead. A railhead may serve one or two divi- 
sions or similar units. (See also FM 100-10.) 

■ 52. Characteristics. — Any railway station that is to be 
used as a railhead for a considerable length of time should 
possess the following characteristics: 

a. Located as conveniently as possible to the units to be 
served but beyond the effective range of hostile artillery. 

t>. Storage facilities, both open and closed, sufficient to care 
for the supplies to be maintained. 



38 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 52-53 

c. Receiving, switching, and spare sidings. A siding ca- 
pacity of eleven 36-foot cars is ample for the unit section of 
a daily train for one division. Greater siding capacity, there- 
fore, may permit two such trains to be at the railhead at the 
same time. This will permit the class I supply of more than 
one division, or an additional train with other than class I 
supplies. 

d. Unloading platforms for supplies, personnel, and animals. 

e. Good highway facilities. 

/. Space in and around the station sufficient for trucks to 
keep off the main highway while at the railhead, and also 
for the necessary maneuver of vehicles during the operation 
of loading. (See fig. 9.) 

■ 53. Operation. — a. Personnel. — Railheads and railhead 
personnel are exempted from the control of commanders cf 
tactical units in whose territorial jurisdiction they may be 
located, except in matters of police, traffic control, and 
measures for the enforcement of sanitation and safety. la 
emergencies, when railhead or service troops are insufficient 
to meet the requirements in labor, the railhead officer may 
call upon the nearest military commander for assistance. 

b. Railhead officer. — Each railhead is commanded by a 
railhead officer who ia responsible for the efficient operation 
of his installation. He commands by virtue of authority 
delegated to him by the commander of the theater of oper- 
ations, through the regulating officer. He receives his in- 
structions from the latter, and is assisted by suitable per- 
sonnel from the services interested (See also PM 100-10.) 
His duties are the following: 

(1) He is charged with the reception, unloading, custody, 
and delivery of all supplies received at his station. He is 
warned by his railway transportation officer of the probable 
hour of arrival of trains and must make arrangements to 
unload all cars with utmost dispatch. These cars should be 
released without delay. 

(2) He is responsible for the sanitation and appearance 
of his yards and all grounds adjacent thereto. 

(3) Whenever a railhead is located at a commercial sta- 
tion, a station not devoted entirely to military purposes, he 
must exercise particular care not to encroach upon por- 
tions of the yard reserved for commercial purposes. He 



39 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 




40 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN FIELD OF OPERATIONS 



53-54 



should establish friendly relations with the station agent and 
the commercial railway personnel on duty thereat. 

(4) He should take special precautions to keep the loading 
platforms and the ground near the tracks clear. 

(5) He distributes to the division quartermaster, or other 
supply officer, the daily class I supplies of rations and forage 
based upon the actual strength of the organization in men 
and animals, and all other items of class I supplies on actual 
requirements. Other supplies are distributed in accordance 
with the original demand for them. 

(6) Records are kept showing the receipts, issue, and dis- 
position of all supplies received. 

(7) Under such regulations as may be prescribed by the 
regulating officer, he receives and ships all salvage and 
surplus property delivered to him. 

(8) By means of a daily report of the actual issues and 
stock on hand of the main items of class I supply, he keeps 
the regulating officer informed as to conditions at the rail- 
head, which enables the regulating officer to adjust the loads 
of the daily trains to meet actual requirements of the troops 
and to assure the proper level of railhead reserves. 

(9) He, or a commissioned assistant, inspects the contents 
of each car and verifies its quantity and condition. 

c. Railway transportation officer. — The railhead officer has 
associated with him as his subordinate a railway transpor- 
tation officer to cooperate in matters of railway operation. 
The railway transportation officer is a representative of the 
rail transport service and, in all matters of railway operation, 
reports to and receives his orders from his division super- 
intendent. Actually he is a military station agent. In coop- 
eration with the railhead officer he should, by all means in 
his power, expedite the movement, release, and return of 
all railway rolling stock and free the railhead as rapidly as 
possible of railway equipment. He keeps a car record show- 
ing the car number, date of arrival and departure, and 
contents. 

■ 54. Railhead Company. — a. A quartermaster railhead com- 
pany (T/O 10-197) is organized for the purpose of operating 
the railhead. This company is organized into a company 
headquarters and three platoons, and has a capacity to 
receive, issue, and evacuate all class I, II, m, and IV supplies 
(except ammunition and animals) required to maintain 



41 



54-56 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



25,000 men. The company headquarters supervises the op- 
erations and is responsible for all administrative duties 
pertaining to the company. 

b. The platoon is the basic operating unit. It is divided 
into two sections for convenience in staggering working hours, 
or for the purpose of handling specific commodity classes 
of supplies. (See also PM 100-10.) 

■ 55. Daily Train. — a. A daily train is usually accompanied 
by a noncommissioned officer from the regulating station 
who turns over to the railhead officer the invoice of the ship- 
ment. This invoice is used either by the lieutenant in charge 
of records or the lieutenant in charge of operations in in- 
specting the contents of each car. The inspection is facili- 
tated by the loading slip, duly verified, which is tacked in a 
conspicuous place in each car near the door. In open cars, 
the slips are tacked in places protected from the weather. 
The loading slips show the car number, contents, weights 
or quantities, and the consignee. 

b. As the railhead officer (or his representative) inspects 
each car, unloading details with checkers are present to begin 
unloading the supplies, either placing them in the storehouses 
and open storage, or issuing them direct to vehicles. Where 
the loading slip and the checker's list do not agree, a report 
is made to the regulating officer setting forth the discrepancies 
in detail. Hay and grain are placed in open storage on 
dunnage and under paulins, while rations are stored under 
cover. Fuel and gasoline are placed in open storage. (See 
also FM 100-10.) 

■ 56. Railhead Reserves. — a. A railhead reserve consists of 
such items as may be prescribed by the division or higher 
commander. A class I supply railhead will normally stock 
reserves to an amount prescribed by the division or higher 
commander in all stabilized situations. In mobile situations 
the tactical situation, type of combat, facilities available, the 
terrain, and the danger of hostile interruption of lines of 
communication will all influence the commander's decision 
as to the type and quantity of reserves. In general, it can 
be said that 1 day of class I supplies normally will be carried 
at each railhead. If, however, a river must be crossed in 
supplying the troops, and there is danger of interruption by 
hostile air attack, additional days of supply should be con- 
centrated in the railheads in the amount decided upon by 

42 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 56 

the commanders. In some instances the advance or with- 
drawal may be so rapid as to preclude the maintenance of a 
railhead reserve. (See also PM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

b. Between the submission of the daily telegram and the 
receipt of the supplies by the division quartermaster there 
will be a lapsed period of several days. This is known as 
the "time lag." The length of this time lag may vary from 
1 to 5 days. During this period, changes in the strength of 
the organizations both in men and animals may take place. 
To compensate for these fluctuations a small railhead reserve 
becomes automatically established to compensate for these 
differences. For example, daily telegrams submitted on each 
of the following days show the strength of the division : 

Jan. 10 Jan. 11 Jan. 12 Jan. 13 Jan. 14 

11,298 11,201 10,200 9,703 12,772 

The time lag from date of submission of the daily telegram 
until supplies are received by the division quartermaster is 
assumed to be 3 days. Therefore, the supplies ordered Janu- 
ary 10th will be received night January 13-14, and supplies 
ordered January 11th, will be received night January 14-15., 
However, the telegram of January 10th called for supplies 
for 11,298 men, but when received night January 13-14 the 
division has only 9,703 men. The quantity of supplies for 
the difference of 1,595 men is placed in the railhead reserve. 
On January 11th, the telegram called for supplies for 11,201 
men, but when the supplies are received night January 14-15, 
the division has 12,772 men and there will be a shortage of 
1,571 rations. On night January 13-14, however, 1,595 rations 
were placed in the railhead reserve and these are now avail- 
able to the railhead officer to make up the shortage. As only 
1,571 rations are required, there will still be a railhead 
reserve of 24 rations available for future issues. 

c. In cases where the quantity of rations received at the 
railhead is less than that required by the division and there 
is no railhead reserve, special provisions will have to be 
improvised by the command until this shortage has been 
adjusted. 

d. Shortages may also be made up from such railhead re- 
serves as may be prescribed by the commander, for in those 
instances 1 or more days of supply are maintained for the 
entire division. This reserve, however, will also fluctuate, 
based upon the time lag. 

43 



57 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



CHAPTER 3 



SUPPLY INSTALLATIONS 



Paragraphs 



Section I. Salvage and related activities. 



57-62 
63-65 
66-67 
68-70 
71-SO 



II. Subsistence 

III. Gasoline and oil supply. 

IV. Remount depot 

V. Personnel replacement-. 



Section I 



SALVAGE AND RELATED ACTIVITTES 



■ 57. General. — a. The prompt salvage of equipment and ma- 
terial which are partially worn out or abandoned on the bat- 
tlefield and in camps and bivouacs, together with the ex- 
ploitation of captured material, makes available considerable 
quantities of supplies for issue to the troops and lightens the 
burden on the lines of communication incident to the trans- 
portation of supplies from the rear. (See also FM 10-5.) 

b. A salvage service is organized in the theater of operations 
for the purpose of collecting and sorting all abandoned and 
unserviceable property. Fundamentally, salvage operations 
in the combat zone are organized and executed under the 
direction of army headquarters. During periods of stabliza- 
tion, corps and division commanders may be made responsible 
for salvage operations within their commands. 

c. Salvage property is collected at points so located as to' 
permit its transportation by empty vehicles moving to the 
rear. Articles which cannot be placed in serviceable condi- 
tion for reissue to troops by facilities at the disposition of 
the army are evacuated to railheads. 

d. Arms and equipment of the sick and wounded are col- 
lected at hospitalization establishments and turned over to 
the salvage services. 

e. In order to insure the proper sorting of salvage property, 
it is essential that the several services be represented by com- 
petent personnel at points where salvage is collected. 

/. Salvage property not required in the army is evacuated 
as rapidly as conditions permit to designated depots of the 
communications zone or zone of the interior. 



44 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 57-58 

gf. In war, two agencies cooperate in the recovery of salvage 
materials. Organizations collect and return to dumps or rail- 
heads all unserviceable and excess supplies, and quartermas- 
ter salvage collecting companies collect, sort, and classify all 
salvage and waste material. 

h. Salvage materials collected in the combat zone are taken 
to salvage dumps or collecting stations which are established 
at convenient points along railways, roads, or other avenues 
of communication. At salvage dumps the materials are care- 
fully inspected by quartermaster salvage collecting companies 
and separated into two classes: 

(1) That which is new or fit for immediate reissue. 

(2) That which is to be sent back to salvage depots. 

i. Salvaged optical instruments should be rolled in burlap 
bags, tied, and labeled in letters not less than 1 inch high, 
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS— HANDLE WITH CARE. Opti- 
cal instruments are never allowed to accumulate, but are 
shipped at once to the nearest ordnance shop or depot. 

j. Rifles should be dipped in an oil bath and securely tied 
in bundles of three, two with butts down, with a rope or piece 
of canvas between them to prevent marring. 

k. Before beginning the collection on a battlefield an officer 
should make a preliminary survey for the following purposes: 

(1) To locate the places containing the largest quantity of 
material. 

(2) To determine the amount of labor necessary. 

(3) To determine the best' arrangement for evacuation. 

I. Salvage officers should keep a general' receipt and ex- 
pended or issue account of all articles handled by them. 

m. The corps or army quartermaster will normally have 
As his assistants the necessary quartermaster officers to super- 
vise salvage activities pertaining to his command. (See 
FM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

■ 58. Salvage Collecting Company. — This unit is designed 
for the receipt, collection, sorting, and basic classification of 
all classes of salvage at salvage collecting points, salvage 
dumps, and at railheads and to evacuate it to salvage depots 
in the communications zone. It is organized into three pla- 
toons of two sections each, the sections having two squads. 
It has ordnance, chemical, and signal personnel attached. 
(See T/O 10-187 and FM 10-5.) 



438624' — 42 4 



45 



59 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD 'MANUAL 



■ 59. Headquarters, Quartermaster Salvage Depot. — The or- 
ganization for the headquarters of a quartermaster salvage 
depot has been designed to repair and reclaim damaged, un- 
serviceable, and abandoned quartermaster property and ma- 
terials recovered from the battlefield and after repair to 
dispose of it by returning it to quartermaster depots for re- 
issue. This unit provides for the officers and enlisted men 
required to operate and maintain the depot and its repair 
equipment and to supervise the personnel and repair work 
of the installation. The actual repair work is performed by 
civilians or enlisted men who are specialists in the manu- 
facture or repair of the various classes of equipment and 
supplies that will probably have to be handled. The salvage 
depot repairs only articles of quartermaster issue and reships 
to salvage depots of other supply services the reparable items 
and reclaimable materials pertaining to the respective service 
which have been received at the quartermaster salvage depot. 
The headquarters, quartermaster salvage depot, is organized 
as shown in T/O 10-250. (See FM 10-5.) 

a. Administrative division. — The administrative division 
is subdivided into two branches, the administrative and 
the service branch. The administrative branch of this divi- 
sion maintains the records and performs the military and 
technical paper work incident to the operation of the depot 
and its personnel. The service branch is subdivided into 
supply, utilities, and maintenance sections. The supply sec- 
tion of the service branch handles all classes of supply for 
the depot, including clothing and rations for the personnel 
employed and all of the machinery, tools, and technical 
operating supplies required in the repair shops. The utili- 
ties section maintains the building, grounds, and machinery, 
including the operation of the power and heating plant. 
The maintenance section provides watchman service, oper- 
ates a general mess, and provides the transportation required 
about the depot. 

b. Salvage division. — This division is divided into admin- 
istrative, classification, disposal, and storage branches. The 
administrative branch of this division supervises the activi- 
ties of the division in general, including the assignment of 
personnel and the maintenance of salvage records. The 
classification branch supervises the receipt of salvage sent 
to the depot, its classification, and distributes the various 



46 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 59-60 

classes and items to the proper shops of the repair division 
and/or the storage branch. The disposal branch is charged 
with the disposal of waste materials and nonreclaimable and 
nonreparable property. The storage branch is charged with 
the storage and disposition by issue or shipment to depots 
of the various supply arms and services, of the serviceable 
and repaired property. 

c. Repair division. — The repair division is subdivided into 
six branches. This division repairs .only items of common 
issue to all branches of the service. It does not repair motor 
vehicles, weapons, aircraft, radios, or other technical Signal 
Corps, Medical Department, or Chemical Warfare Service 
equipment; such material is repaired in shops especially 
designed for this class of work and operated by the respec- 
tive supply services. The administrative branch supervises 
the activities of the division in general, including the assign- 
ment of personnel and the maintenance of the repair rec- 
ords. The clothing and textile branch is charged with the 
repair of clothing, fabric headwear, bedding, blankets, and 
other supplies of a textile nature. The shoe and leather 
goods branch is charged with the repair of shoes, harness, 
saddlery, and other articles fabricated from leather. The 
canvas and webbing branch is charged with the repair of 
tentage, paulins, web equipment, upholstery, and other arti- 
cles made of canvas or web materials. The machinery and 
metal goods branch is charged with the repair of mechani- 
cal equipment, animal-drawn transportation, tools, laundry^ 
and bakery equipment, and other supplies fabricated from 
metal. The miscellaneous branch is charged with the op- 
eration of several miscellaneous shops for the repair of band 
instruments, typewriters, rubber goods, and other supplies 
not falling definitely into the classes repaired by other 
branches of the repair division. 

■ 60. Sterilization and Bath. — a. Battalion sterilization and 
bath. — (1) The quartermaster sterilization and bath battalion 
or company has the mission of divesting personnel and cloth- 
ing of lice and similar parasites. This mission is accomplished 
by providing hot water shower baths, medical examinations, 
and a change of clothing for personnel. Clothing removed 
from infested personnel is sterilized and that which needs no 
repair is laundered by a quartermaster laundry company and 
made available for reissue immediately. Clothing which needs 

47 



60 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



repair is sent back to the salvage depot for repair and then 
placed in stock. 

(2) The battalion headquarters and headquarters detach- 
ment supervises the administration, supply, and technical 
operations of the battalion as a whole. The battalion head- 
quarters personnel is attached to one of the companies for 
rations and quarters. 

6. Company sterilization and bath. — The company is com- 
posed of a company headquarters, a supply platoon, and a 
sterilization and bath platoon. (See T/O 10-177.) 

(1) The company headquarters administers, supplies, 
messes, and supervises the technical operations of the com- 
pany as a whole. It consists of the company commander 
and 22 enlisted men. To process, that is, to bathe, physically 
examine, and reclothe the number of troops listed as the 
daily capacity of the company (2,500) in 10 hours, all of 
the platoons, sections, and squads are required. 

(2) The supply platoon fits and issues clean clothing to 
the troops and disposes of the soiled clothing, after it has 
been sterilized, by sending it to a quartermaster laundry 
company for further renovation, or to salvage if not 
reissuable. 

(3) The sterilization and bath platoon operates the steam 
sterilizers and provides the bathing service. 

(4) It takes about 45 minutes for a soldier to pass through 
the plant, this time being divided about as follows: 



(5) The steam sterilizers and the shower baths are installed 
on the 5-ton sterlization and bath semitrailers, one to each 
of the four sections of the sterilization and bath platoons; 
a 5- ton tractor truck is provided for each of these semitrailers. 
Each of the four issue squads in the supply section of the 
supply platoon has a 2'/2-ton cargo truck with 1-ton trailer. 
The clean articles of clothing which are issued to the soldier 
consist of one each of undershirt, underdrawers, socks (pair) , 
shirt, trousers, coat, overcoat and mittens (pair) (if cold 
weather) , cap or hat, waist belt, handkerchief, leggings (pair) , 



Minutes\ 



Undressing 5 

Bathing ^ 15 

Medical examination 5 

Drawing clean clothing , 10 

Dressing 10 



Includes time of 
passing from one 
"station" to an- 
other. 



48 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS . 60-61 

and shoes (pair) if required. The clothing issue, fitting, and 
exchange are handled by the squads of the supply section, and 
the salvage by the salvage section, of the supply platoon. The 
processing of the men through the unit is administered by 
the supply platoon headquarters. 

(6) Buildings or tentage may be used for undressing, medi- 
cal examination, dressing, and salvage operations. Steam 
and hot water for the sterilization of the clothing and for 
the baths are generated on the semitrailer. An ample supply 
of water must be available. 

■ 61. Laundry. — a. Quartermaster laundry battalion. — The 
quartermaster laundry battalion is composed of a battalion 
headquarters and headquarters detachment and four laundry 
companies. The quartermaster laundry battalion has suf- 
ficient personnel and equipment to serve a force of 144,000 
men weekly and is organized in accordance with T/O 10-165. 

b. Quartermaster laundry company. — The quartermaster 
laundry company is a mobile unit and can provide weekly 
laundry service to a force of 36,000 men by washing 36,000 
each of shirts, socks (pairs) , towels, trousers, undershirts, and 
underdrawers. These operations do not include ironing, dry- 
cleaning, or degassing. This weekly capacity is based on 
two 6-hour operating shifts per day. The company is or- 
ganized in accordance with T/O 10-167. 

(1) The company headquarters performs the usual admin- 
istrative and technical supervisory functions for the company 
as a whole. 

(2) The platoon is the basic operating unit and is self- 
contained. It can provide weekly laundry service to a force 
of 9,000 men by washing 9,000 each of shirts, socks (pairs) , 
towels, trousers, undershirts, and underdrawers. The dis- 
tribution and number of personnel permits working two 6- 
hour shifts per day which can be lengthened, if necessary. 

(3) The laundry company is mobile, all of its operating 
equipment being mounted on laundry semitrailer vans. Trac- 
tor trucks are provided to move the unit from one location to 
another. 

(4) Each platoon has four semitrailer vans, laundry, 5-ton, 
on which are mounted electric motor-driven washing ma- 
chines, extractors, and tumblers; also, equipment for furnish- 
ing steam and hot water. One 1%-ton cargo truck and a 
1-ton trailer are provided to each platoon for local hauling 
needs. 

49 



62-63 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



■ 62. Shoe, Clothing, and Textile Repair. — The quartermas- 
ter mobile shoe and textile repair company is a unit provided 
for. the purpose of accomplishing shoe, clothing, and. textile 
repairs with or in close proximity to the troops in order to 
reduce excessive movements along the line of communications 
and to be able to reissue the shoes, clothing, and textile equip- 
ment in less time than that involved where shoes, clothing, 
and textile equipment must be shipped long distances to the 
rear for repair. 

a. The company has a strength of 3 officers and 199 enlisted 
men, and is organized into a company headquarters and two 
2-section platoons. (See T/O 10-237.) 

6. The section is the basic repair unit, with its own foreman, 
operators, and equipment. The platoon is merely a combina- 
tion of two sections, with the addition of a shoe machine 
mechanic and a sewing machine mechanic. It has six semi- 
trailer vans, two for shoe repair, two for clothing repair, and 
two for textile equipment repair; it is equipped with shoe and 
sewing machines and other necessary equipment. It also has 
six tractor-trucks, 4- to 5-ton, as organic transportation for 
the shop vans. 

Section II 

SUBSISTENCE 

■ 63. Commissary Company. — a. The sales commissary com- 
pany has a strength of 4 officers and 201 enlisted men. It 
Is composed of a company headquarters and three platoons 
of four sections each. It is equipped with three trailers per 
section, one for sales, one for administration, and one for 
stock. (See T/O 10-157.) The company headquarters per- 
forms the usual administrative and "housekeeping" functions 
for the company as a whole, and supervises the sales activities 
and the property and money accounts of the operating 
platoons and sections. 

b. The sales commissary company operates the general 
sales stores in the communications zone. It is the largest 
unit of its type and is capable of serving about 120,000 troops. 
Although its primary function is to provide this service for 
troops in the combat zone, the organization is such that a 
mobile unit operated by a section capable of serving 10,000 
troops may be set up at any desirable point in the communi- 



50 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 63-64 

cations zone as well as the combat zone. Likewise, larger 
stores operated by a platoon of four sections or any combina- 
tion of sections, each section serving about 10,000 troops, may 
be operated as the necessity arises. 

c. Items to be sold will be designated by proper authority. 
These items will be procured from depots operating within 
the communications zone or from other sources as directed. 

d. Authorized individuals, organizations, and messes as des- 
ignated by proper authority may purchase at the general 
sales store. Records, accounts, etc., will be maintained as 
directed for the operation of sales commissaries in existing 
regulations or current orders. (See FM. 10-5.) 

■ 64. Bakery Battalion. — a. The quartermaster bakery bat- 
talion has a strength of 23 officers and 645 enlisted men, 
and is organized into a battalion headquarters and head- 
quarters detachment and four companies. The bakery bat- 
talion has a daily capacity to bake sufficient fresh bread to 
supply approximately 160,000 men. (See T/O 10-145.) 

b. The quartermaster bakery company, 5 officers and 158 
enlisted men, has a baking capacity per day capable of serv- 
ing 40,000 troops. It is organized into a company head- 
quarters and four platoons. (See T/O 10-147.) 

c. The bakery platoon, with 1 officer and 35 enlisted men, 
is the basic operating unit and is organized into a platoon 
headquarters and four baking sections. Each section oper- 
ates one oven and can bake about 980 pounds of bread in 
seven "runs" per 24 hours; this results in the platoon's baking 
normally about 3,920 pounds and the company 15,680 pounds 
of bread per 24 hours. If necessary, ten "runs" per day can 
be turned out, thus making the maximum output per 24 hour 
day about 1,400 pounds per section, 5,600 pounds per platoon, 
and 22,400 pounds per company. Thus, the normal capacity 
of the bakery company will provide for a force of 40,000 men. 

d. Fresh bread is usually supplied from field bakeries oper- 
ated in the communications zone by the bakery battalions or 
company. The field bakery is set up at or near advance quar- 
termaster class I supply depots which serve troops in the com- 
bat zone. Other field bakeries are set up to serve the troops 
within the communications zone. In exceptional cases field 
bakeries may be operated by an army in the combat zone. 
When operating in this manner they function directly under 



51 



64-65 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



the army quartermaster service, and are usually attached to 
the army or independent corps. 

■ 65. Cold Storage and Refrigeration. — a. Refrigeration 
company. — The refrigeration company consists of 4 officers 
and 224 enlisted men. It is made up of a headquarters pla- 
toon, butchery platoon, ■ refrigeration platoon, and a cold 
storage platoon. (See T/O 10-217.) 

(1) Headquarters platoon. — The headquarters platoon Is 
organized into a company and platoon headquarters, an ad- 
ministrative section, and a plant service section. 

(a) Company and platoon headquarters. — The company 
and platoon headquarters performs the military, administra- 
tive, supply, and training functions for the company and 
the plant as a whole. 

(b) Administrative section. — The administrative section 
handles the technical administration of the several operating 
platoons. 

(e) Plant service section. — The plant service section, or 
utilities group, maintains the machinery and technical equip- 
ment and tools used to operate the plant. As this installation 
preferably operates in permanent buildings, and must so op- 
erate where ice is to be manufactured, a considerable amount 
of machinery and an ammonia piping system must be kept 
in repair. While the company can operate from the road- 
side, for example, at a regulating station or railhead, by using 
refrigerator cars in which to store the perishable subsistence, 
it is preferable to provide for a permanent installation in the 
communications zone, and to forward the perishables to the 
front in refrigerator cars or trucks, when available. 

(2) Butchery platoon. — The butchery platoon does the 
meat cutting in order to forward to railheads the "retail" 
cuts rather than the "wholesale" market cuts. In addition, 
this platoon can slaughter, dress, and perform abattoir func- 
tions to a limited degree if it becomes necessary to pro- 
cure live animals in the theater of operations. The platoon 
is not equipped to conduct continued or large scale slaughter- 
house activities, but it can perform these functions when the 
necessity arises. Should such activities become necessary 
the additional labor required must be secured from quarter- 
master service units. 



52 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 65 

(3) Refrigeration platoon. — The refrigeration platoon op- 
erates the refrigeration and ice-making machinery and 
equipment of the plant, and personnel for this purpose is 
provided in sufficient numbers to be able to operate in three 
8-hour shifts. 

(4) Cold storage platoon. — The cold storage platoon re- 
ceives and stores the frozen and chilled meats, meat food, 
dairy, and other perishable products, and loads them into 
cars for forwarding to the railheads on the daily train or to 
trucks which may be sent out from the plant. 

(5) Transportation. — Transportation is furnished to the 
company to provide only the local needs of the plant and 
the supervisory and operating personnel. 

(6) Medical personnel. — As this company and its instal- 
lations will normally be found in the communications zone 
where medical service is available, attached medical per- 
sonnel has not been provided. 

(7) Inspection. — Two officers and eight enlisted men of 
the Veterinary Corps attached to the company are for the 
purpose of inspecting the meats and other perishables upon 
receipt and prior to shipment, to act in an advisory capacity 
as concerns the sanitation of the plant, and to render such 
other technical assistance as may be required. 

(8) Existing facilities. — Whenever possible, existing cold 
storage and refrigeration facilities should be used. This is 
particularly so in the case of loading and unloading facilities 
at ports of debarkation. 

b. Functions. — The refrigeration company is organized for 
use in war in the communications zone. It has two major 
functions — namely, the storage and issue of fresh meats, 
poultry and eggs, dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables, 
and medical department perishables, and the manufacture 
of the ice required by hospitals and other installations in 
the theater of operations. In addition it is equipped to 
quarter beef (cattle), to produce "retail" meat cuts from 
"wholesale" cuts, and to perform such boning work as may 
be required. The company is designed for a capacity to serve 
120,000 troops, provide a 30-day stockage of 2,500 tons of 
meat, a 30-day stockage of 1,500 tons of other perishable 
food products', and to manufacture 200 tons of ice in a 24-hour 
day. (See FM 10-5.) 



53 



66 



QUARTERMAC-TER FIELD MANUAL 



Sectio;i III 

GASOLINE AND OIL SUPPLY 

■ 66. Quartermaster Gasoline Supply Units. — a. (1) The 
mission of the gasoline supply battalion is to distribute gaso- 
line and oil to general headquarters and army and corps 
troops, to augment distribution to divisions when required, 
particularly in event of disruption of the railroads, augment 
or supplant deliveries from the zone of the interior or com- 
munications zone to the combat zone, and to operate filling 
stations at various points in the theater of operations. 

(2) The method under which this battalion is employed 
will depend on the situation. It is contemplated that, except 
under unusual circumstances, the battalion will not operate 
as a unit in one locality. The company is the normal op- 
erating unit. 

(3) The battalion has a capacity of 62,800 gallons of gaso- 
line and 1,200 gallons of oil, sufficient to serve 4,800 vehicles, 
all classes, based on one trip per day. The battalion and 
each of its companies is equipped with 2y 2 -ton cargo trucks 
and 1-ton trailers for delivery of gasoline and oil in 10- 
gallon unit containers. 

(4) The battalion is organized into a headquarters and 
headquarters detachment and four companies, with a total 
strength of 10 officers and 480 enlisted men. (See T/O 
10-75.) 

b. (1) The gasoline supply company has a capacity of 15,- 
700 gallons of gasoline and 300 gallons of oil, sufficient to serve 
1,200 vehicles, all classes, based on one trip per day. (May 
also carry small amounts of gear lubricants and greases.) 
The company is organized with a company headquarters, a 
truck platoon, and a service platoon, as per T/O 10-77. 

(2) While the company is the normal operating unit, it 
may, if conditions warrant, have sections or squads attached 
to tactical units. The company may also set up and oper- 
ate service stations and supply points at convenient points 
along the highway, and may operate civilian installations and 
make deliveries direct to train bivouacs or distributing 
points. 

(3) The truck platoon is practically a standard platoon, 
organized, equipped, and with a strength almost exactly 
like a platoon of a truck company. (See T/O 10-57.) 



54 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 66-70 

• 

(4) The service platoon is organized similar to, and with 
the strength of, a section of a quartermaster service com- 
pany. (See T/O 10-67.) This platoon functions at rail- 
head or filling stations to fill cans from tank cars, tank 
trucks, or drums, to load and unload trucks, and issue gaso- 
line and oil. Normally, 20 of the 40 gasoline handlers are 
attendants on trucks (usually one to a truck) to unload and 
issue filled cans and to unload empty containers. 

■ 67. Gasoline and Oil Filling Station. — The army quar- 
termaster will establish gasoline and oil supply points at 
all railheads and depots or at convenient locations, such as 
civilian gasoline filling stations, on the main supply routes. 
This is to permit motor vehicles sent to the rear for any 
purpose to be filled with gasoline and oil on the same trip. 
(See FM 100-10.) 

Section IV 
REMOUNT DEPOT 

■ 68. Remount Squadron. — a. The function of the remount 
squadron is to operate a field remount depot with a capacity 
of 1,600 animals. The squadron is organized into a squadron 
headquarters and headquarters detachment and four re- 
mount troops. It has a strength of 19 officers and 674 enlisted 
men, plus attached medical of 8 officers and 44 enlisted men, 
mostly veterinary technicians. (See T/O 10-95.) 

b. The squadron headquarters and headquarters detach- 
ment performs the administrative, supply, and general super- 
visory functions for the squadron as a whole. 

■ 69. Remount Troop. — The personnel of the remount troop 
is sufficient to receive, handle, condition, and supply 400 ani- 
mals. It is organized into a troop headquarters and a depot 
group. The personnel consists of 4 officers and 165 enlisted 
men, plus attached veterinary of 1 officer and -7 enlisted 
men. (See T/O 10-97.) 

a. The troop headquarters administers, supplies, and messes 
the personnel of the troop and performs the record and 
paper work incident to the operation of the depot. 

b. The depot group is the operating unit of the company. 

■ 70. Operations a. The animals to haul wagons should be 

taken from those being conditioned at the depot. In good 



55 



70-?2 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



weather, where pasturing is available, a comparatively small 
quantity of grain and long forage will have to be fed, but 
during inclement weather or where pasturing is not available, 
hay, straw, oats, and bran must be provided daily. 

b. Normally, a field remount depot is operated by a remount 
squadron and will be found at or near a veterinary hospital. 
The plan of coordinated and cooperative work by and be- 
tween the personnel of those two installations is that when 
replacement animals are delivered to troop units, usually 
by marching, the remount personnel will be charged with the 
delivery and will be assisted by the veterinary corps personnel 
attached to the remount squadron or by personnel from the 
adjacent veterinary hospital. The accompanying veterinary 
personnel is especially required when shipments or deliveries 
are to be made by water, rail, or truck during which many 
cases of travel sickness and injuries are found. When the 
delivery of the replacement animals has been made to the 
troop units, the sick and wounded animals from the combat 
area are evacuated to the veterinary hospital, this movement 
being in charge of the veterinary personnel and assisted by 
the remount depot personnel. (See FM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

C. In providing nonsupervisory operating personnel to the 
depot group, a further basis has been accepted as satisfactory 
in most cases: 1 horseshoer per 100 animals, 1 saddler per 
100 animals, and 1 horsetrainer and 1 stableman per 8 
animals. (See FM 10-5.) 

Section V 

PERSONNEL REPLACEMENT 

■ 71. Replacement Plan. — A plan for the organization, train- 
ing, and forwarding of personnel in sufficient numbers to 
maintain all troops in the theater of operations at full 
strength at all times is a basic necessity in preparation of 
any plan of operation. (See PM 100-10.) 

■ 72. Preparation of Plan. — The preparation of the re- 
placement plan, including the number of replacements esti- 
mated as necessary, is a function of the zone of the interior. 
However, the commander of the theater of operations is mate- 
rially concerned and must make representations as to his 
requirements when necessary. 



56 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 73-76 

■ 73. Types of Replacement. — Replacements of personnel 
are divided into two classes: filler replacements and loss re- 
placements. Filler replacements are those required initially 
to raise units to prescribed strength. Loss replacements are 
those needed to replace losses. All replacements should be 
thoroughly trained, clothed, equipped, and properly armed 
before being forwarded to a theater of operations. 

■ 74. Replacement System. — a. The replacement system in 
the theater of operations must be sufficiently flexible to meet 
the local needs and to insure an unfailing and timely arrival 
of replacements where needed. 

b. Replacements, like supplies, are echeloned in depth. 
The number of echelons depends mainly on the depth of 
the theater of operations. Base and advance replacement 
depots may be established in the communications zone if 
necessary. (See PM 100-10.) 

■ 75. Sources of Replacement. — Sources of replacements 
comprise the zone of the interior; evacues in the theater of 
operations who, as a rule, are automatically returned to their 
former organizations; the personnel returned to an assign- 
ment status from absence without leave ; prisoners upon com- 
pletion of sentence; officers upon reclassification; and others 
who for any reason become available for assignment. (See 
PM 100-10.) 

■ 76. Forwarding Replacements. — a. Replacements are for- 
warded upon requisition. A company requisitions on the 
regiment, the regiment, on the division. A division fills the 
requisitions in whole or in part from replacements available 
to the division and makes requisition on the army for the 
part or parts of requisitions which it is unable to fill. Corps 
requisition directly on the army. The army fills in whole 
or in part the requisitions which it receives from replacements 
available in the army replacement battalions; it draws on 
the communications zone for the part or parts of the requisi- 
tion which it is unable to fill. Credits may be established for 
the theater of operations by the War Department in depots 
in the zone of the interior upon request of the commander 
of the theater of operations.. 

b. (1) Replacements are forwarded to their organizations 
in the theater of operations by the most convenient means 



57 



76-80 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



available — by rail, motor, or water transportation, or by 
marching. Forward movements beyond railheads are 
normally executed by marching or by motor. 

(2) Replacements may be forwarded directly from the zone 
of the interior to divisions in the theater of operations, to 
the army replacement battalions, or to the base or advance 
replacement depots. A replacement depot is an agency lo- 
cated in the theater of operations for the roception and dis- 
tribution of replacements. They may be forwarded from the 
latter to the army replacement battalions or to divisions; or 
from the army replacement battalions to divisions. Replace- 
ments for corps and army troops are forwarded in a similar 
manner. The method selected is that which is the most con- 
venient and practicable, depending on the situation and the 
character of the operations. 

c. (1) Priority in the forwarding of replacements to the 
army is established by army headquarters. Where two or 
more armies are served by a common communications zone, 
the next higher headquarters under which the armies operate 
establishes priority. 

(2) In the forwarding of replacements by railroad, regu- 
lating stations function in the same manner as in the ship- 
ment of supplies for the commands which they serve. Pri- 
ority of movement to the army is determined and coordinated 
by the regulating station under instructions from the army. 
(See FM 100-10.) 

■ 77. System of Requisitioning and Forwarding of Re- 
placements. — The system of requisitioning and forwarding of 
replacements is shown diagrammatically in FM 100-10. 

■ 78. Replacement of Quartermaster Personnel. — In gen- 
eral, the replacement of quartermaster personnel will follow 
the system outlined above. (See FM 100-10.) 

■ 79. Additional Sources of Replacements. — In addition to 
the zone of the interior as a source from which ceplacements 
are obtained, men discharged from hospitals, both in the zone 
of the interior and theaters of operations, will be available. 
These sources increase in importance as hostilities continue. 
(See FM 100-10.) 

■ 80. Return of Personnel to Units. — a. Effort should be 
made to return individuals as replacements to the units from 



58 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 80 

which they were evacuated. Where the military situation 
makes this too difficult, or when appropriate vacancies do 
not exist in these units, such action may be impracticable. 
For example, when a vacancy occurs in a noncommissioned 
grade in a quartermaster unit, it will ordinarily be filled under 
first priority by a noncommissioned officer from the same 
unit who is returning as a replacement. If there is no such 
returning noncommissioned officer, the vacancy may be filled 
by promotion. A temporary excess of total noncommissioned 
grades in a company or similar unit or headquarters organiza- 
tion is authorized for the sole purpose of permitting a non- 
commissioned officer replacement to return to his old 
organization. Such excess, however, will be limited and must 
be absorbed by the first permanent vacancies that occur in 
the organization concerned. 

b. Wherever practicable, quartermaster officers discharged 
from hospitals in the theater will be included among the re- 
placements returned to the divisions or other units in which 
they formerly served. 



59 



t!l-82 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



CHAPTER 4 



TRANSPORTATION 



Section I. Water 



II. Motor. 

III. Rail -. 

IV. Air „. 



Paragraphs 

81 

82-85 

86-90 

91 



Section I 



WATER 



■ 81. Ports of Embarkation (Debarkation) . — See FM 10-5 
and T/O 10-260-1. 

a. Port headquarters company. — The port headquarters 
company is organized for the purpose of performing the nor- 
mal "housekeeping" and local quartermaster administrative 
functions at the port. The company headquarters has 3 
officers and 114 enlisted men. All enlisted men of the port 
headquarters sections are assigned to the headquarters com- 
pany for administration, supply, and messing. (See PM 
10-5.) 

b. Quartermaster battalion, port. — The common labor at a 
port is performed by personnel of the quartermaster battalion, 
port. This battalion consists of a headquarters and head- 
quarters detachment and four companies of three platoons 
each. (See T/O 10-265.) Each company has a loading or 
unloading capacity of 1,500 ship tons and 150 animals per 
day. The size and capacity of the port will decide the number 
of port companies or battalions to be attached. Additional 
labor that may be required may be provided by attaching 
quartermaster service units. 



■ 82. General. — a. Importance. — Motor transport is an im- 
portant component of the transportation service available 
to the commander of the communications zone. It is the 
normal means of supplementing the available rail and inland 



Section n 



MOTOR 



60 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 82-83 

waterway transport. It is extensively used in troop move- 
ments, in administration of depots and other establishments, 
and in the movement of less than carload lots between depots 
and the combat zone. In order to provide for the efficient 
operation of motor transport, it is essential that an adequate 
number of motor transport supply depots and repair shops 
be established throughout the communications zone. (See 
FM 10-5.) 

b. Organization. — The units of the motor transport service 
attached to the communications zone function under the di- 
rection of the communications zone quartermaster in accord- 
ance with the policies established by the commander of the 
communications zone. The organization, training, mainte- 
nance, and operation of this service is a function of the Quar- 
termaster Corps. This transport service includes a head- 
quarters and such administrative, passenger, cargo, supply, 
and maintenance units as are necessary for its efficient oper- 
ation. It is responsible for the procurement of all motor 
transport operating in the theater of operations for which the 
quartermaster is charged, motor replacement parts, gasoline 
supply, and trucks and component parts. Units of the motor 
transport service are attached to armies and corps when the 
situation demands and within the communications zone to 
ports, depots, hospitals, and other establishments in accord- 
ance with their needs. Whenever motor pools are established 
within the communications zone, transportation units of all 
classes of transport may be assigned to the pool. (See PM 
10-5 and 100-10.) 

c. Operations. — Movement of troops and supplies to, and 
evacuation from, the combat zone by motor transport are 
controlled by the regulating officer in the same manner as 
for rail traffic. The regulating officer keeps informed as to 
traffic conditions and the availability of motor transportation, 
arranges for shipments by motor transport as desired, and 
coordinates such movements and the traffic control agencies 
between the communications zone and the armies. (See par. 
32 and PM 10-5.) 

■ 83. Motor Transportation Units. — a. In order to effect the 
pooling of all motor transportation, provide for efficient main- 
tenance within the communications zone, and reduce the 
quartermaster motor supply and transportation respensibili- 



438624'— 42 5 



61 



83 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



ties of the theater commander, all motor transportation may 
be organized into a motor transport service. To provide for 
the control of such a service, a motor transport service head- 
quarters and a motor transport service headquarters company 
is provided, which will supervise the procurement, operation, 
and maintenance of all motor transport operating within the 
theater of operations with which the Quartermaster Corps is 
charged. This headquarters is divided into three divisions — 
an administrative division, an operations division, and a main- 
tenance division. The headquarters company provides the 
clerical force and other personnel required to operate the 
headquarters and to perform the military and housekeeping 
duties for the headquarters personnel. Other units that are 
normally available for assignment to the motor transportation 
service are car companies, light maintenance battalions, heavy 
maintenance regiments, truck regiments, and gasoline supply 
battalions. (See T/O 10-500-1 and 10-500-2.) 

b. Car company. — The car company is organized to furnish 
passenger transportation and messenger service for various 
headquarters and the motor transportation service. This 
unit establishes and operates the headquarters garage and 
such subgarages as may be required for headquarters of units 
larger than a division. This company has sufficient capacity 
to care for the needs of an army headquarters, while one of 
the four platoons is sufficient to provide the requirements 
of an army corps. The platoons are so organized that one or 
more of them may be detached from the company and still 
be capable of establishing a headquarters garage and messen- 
ger service. This company is divided into a company head- 
quarters and four operating platoons. The company 
headquarters performs the normal administrative duties 
common to all units. (See T/O 10-87.) 

c. Quartermaster truck regiment. — (1) The quartermaster 
truck regiment is- designed to provide the transportation unit 
for the hauling of cargo and for the movement of personnel 
by motor transport. This regiment is equipped with six- 
wheeled vehicles which may be of 2y 2 -ton, 4-ton, or 6-ton 
capacity and equipped with either cargo bodies or -tank 
bodies; they may also have 2y 2 -ton, 6x6, truck tractors 
and semitrailers. The type depends on the necessity for a 
particular design or type vehicle. Subordinate units and 
personnel of these regiments will have the same organization 



62 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 83-85 

regardless of the type or design of the truck assigned to that 
unit. These regiments are all supplied, with some 620 trucks 
and 505 trailers, but only 576 of the trucks and 480 of the 
trailers are normally considered available for cargo-carrying 
purposes. The remainder of the vehicles are required for 
administrative and housekeeping purposes within the 
regiment. 

(2) The regiment consists of a regimental headquarters 
and headquarters detachment, three operating battalions, 
and attached medical and chaplain personnel. The regi- 
mental headquarters and headquarters detachment provide 
the necessary personnel for administering the needs of the 
regiment. It consists of 4 officers and 25 enlisted men. (See 
T/O 10-51.) 

(3) Each battalion is organized into a battalion head- 
quarters and four companies. The headquarters and head- 
quarters detachment perform the general administrative 
functions of the battalion. Each battalion has one-third of 
the cargo- and troop-carrying capacity of the regiment. A 
major commands the battalion and has as his assistant a 
captain who is adjutant and traffic officer, and who is the 
commander of the headquarters detachment. The adjutant, 
as the chief of the traffic section, is responsible for the road 
reconnaissance and road control of the battalion. The head- 
quarters and headquarters detachment is normally attached 
to one of the companies of the battalion for messing. (See 
T/O 10-55.) 

(4) The quartermaster truck company or troop is the basic 
operating unit of the regiment and consists of a company 
headquarters and two platoons, each platoon being divided 
into two sections. The company headquarters performs the 
normal duties of company administration. It is provided 
with a 2 1 / 2 -ton cargo truck equipped for second echelon main- 
tenance, a wrecker truck, and the usual kitchen truck and 
company equipment truck. Each of the two platoons is 
divided into two sections of two squads each. (See T/O 10-57.) 

■ 84. Motor Vehicle Maintenance. — See PM 25-10 and 10-5. 

■ 85. Motor Vehicle Maintenance Units. — a. The light 
maintenance battalion and the heavy maintenance regiment 
provide the necessary units for the operation of repair and 
maintenance establishments within the communications zone 
and the combat zone. 

63 



85 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



b. Light maintenance battalion. — (1) The light mainte- 
nance battalion is designed to furnish third echelon motor 
maintenance, which includes the supplying of second echelon 
repair parts for operating motorized units. The battalion 
may be operated as one unit in some central location or it may 
be distributed by companies throughout the communications 
and combat zone area, establishing its shops near the units 
which it is intended to serve. This battalion, is organized 
so as to provide for the detachment of subordinate units for 
this purpose. It is also designed to provide for attachments 
to heavy maintenance regiments when assisting In the oper- 
ation of base shops. This battalion or its companies may 
be attached to army, corps, and divisions, and can be used 
to handle the overflow from the triangular divisions. (See 
T/O 10-25.) 

(2) The battalion is organized into a headquarters and 
headquarters detachment and four companies. The head- 
quarters and headquarters detachment provide the normal 
administration for the battalion. The light maintenance 
company readily adapts itself to act as a light maintenance 
troop when assigned to a mechanized cavalry brigade by sub- 
stituting motorcycle mechanics for half of the automobile and 
truck mechanics that are normally assigned to the company. 

(3) The company is divided into a company or troop head- 
quarters, a supply platoon, and two light maintenance pla- 
toons. The company headquarters provides for the adminis- 
trative overhead of the company, while the supply platoon is 
responsibile for providing first and second echelon repair parts 
for motor vehicles assigned to the company and the third 
echelon repair parts to the maintenance platoons. Each 
maintenance platoon is divided into a platoon headquarters 
performing the normal duties of such headquarters, a wrecker 
section, and a maintenance section. The wrecker section is 
responsible for picking up and removing to the motor repair 
shop all wrecked vehicles abandoned on the road and evacuat- 
ing to fourth echelon repair shops all vehicles not readily 
reparable in the third echelon shops. The maintenance sec- 
tion is responsible for the actual repair of motor vehicles sent 
to the shops for the repair within the limits prescribed for 
third echelon maintenance. (See T/O 10-27.) 

(4) The light maintenance company is capable of perform- 
ing third echelon maintenance for units employing 1,500 vehi- 



64 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 85 

cles of all classes. Normally, three light maintenance bat- 
talions will be attached to each field army and one company 
to each corps. 

c. Quartermaster heavy maintenance regiment. — (1) Gen- 
eral. — The quartermaster heavy maintenance regiment is de- 
signed to provide fourth echelon motor maintenance and to 
store and issue in bulk all motor transport supplies required 
to serve vehicles of all classes. This regiment operates immo- 
bile overhaul and reconstruction establishments and motor 
transport depots. It is organized into a headquarters and 
headquarters detachment and three battalions. The head- 
quarters and headquarters detachment for the regiment per- 
form the duties necessary for the supply and normal adminis- 
tration of the regiment. (See T/O 10-41.) 

(2) Heavy viaintenance battalion. — The heavy maintenance 
battalion is the basic heavy operating unit. It not only per- 
forms the fourth echelon repair work, but stocks, issues, and 
ships all classes of motor transport supplies and repair parts, 
unit assemblies, tires, batteries, etc., and performs motor 
salvage and reclamation work. This battalion is, therefore, a 
combined motor transport supply depot and fourth echelon 
maintenance shop. It stocks supplies and is equipped to per- 
form fourth echelon work and motor vehicle salvage to serve 
vehicles of all classes. It is organized into a headquarters 
and headquarters detachment, one depot company (motor 
transport) , and three heavy maintenance companies. (See 
T/O 10-45.) 

(3) Headquarters. — The headquarters and headquarters de- 
tachment of the battalion provides for the administrative 
overhead of the battalion. 

(4) Depot company (.motor transport) . — The first companies 
in the battalions, that is, A, E, and I, are the depot companies. 
These companies are responsible for the storage and issue in 
bulk or wholesale of motor transport supplies to units through- 
out the theater of operations and to the battalion shop. It 
also furnishes transportation, maintenance, police, fire, and 
guard details for the battalion shop and its grounds. This 
company is organized into a company headquarters which 
performs the normal company duties, a supply platoon, a 
salvage platoon, a service platoon, and a transportation' 
platoon. 



65 



85 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(a) The supply platoon, as a whole, is responsible for the 
storage and issue of all supplies required by the regiment, 
and is capable of supplying the needs of 3,000 vehicles of all 
classes. It is divided into a depot headquarters section, 
which performs the clerical work in connection with procure- 
ment, receipt, and issue of supplies; and a storage section, 
which is responsible for the receipt, storage, and issue of all 
supplies stored in the depot. 

(b) The salvage platoon is divided into a salvage section, 
power plant section, chassis and heavy units section, and a 
body, tire, and battery section. This platoon is responsible 
for the receipt, cleaning, inspection, assembling, tear-down of 
evacuated vehicles and unit assemblies, and the disposition 
of nonreclaimable motor transport equipment and supplies. 
The salvage section is responsible for such salvage opera- 
tions as are not specifically assigned to other sections of the 
platoon. The power plant section is responsible for all opera- 
tions in connection with salvage of automobile power plants. 
The chassis and heavy unit section is responsible for the 
salvage of all chassis and heavy units. The body, tire, and 
battery section is responsible for the salvage of bodies, tires, 
and batteries of vehicles entering the shop. 

(c) The service platoon is divided into a depot maintenance 
section, Are and guard section, and police and labor section. 
The depot maintenance section is responsible for the mainte- 
nance of the shops, machinery, and equipment. The fire and 
guard section is responsible for furnishing the fire and police 
protection for the battalion shops, buildings, and areas. The 
police and labor section is reponsible for the maintenance and 
police of the grounds and the operation of the labor pool. 

(d) The transportation platoon is responsible for the 
operation of the organic transportation and furnishes motor 
transport service for the battalion. (See T/O 10-48.) 

(5) Heavy maintenance company. — (a) The remaining 
three companies of the heavy maintenance battalion are 
heavy maintenance units. This company is organized along 
departmental organization lines and provides mechanics in 
the proper proportions for each major division of work and 
in such numbers as to round out a well-balanced shop or- 
v ganization. While the depot company of the battalion stocks 
and issues supplies in bulk or wholesale, each heavy mainte- 
nance company must maintain repair records for the com- 



66 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 85 

pany and provide one-third of the personnel employed in the 
battalion shop, stock, and tool room. 

(W This company is organized into a company headquar- 
ters, shop headquarters and. supply platoon, a power plant 
platoon, allied trades platoon, a vehicle assembly platoon, 
and a heavy units platoon. The company headquarters pro- 
vides the administrative overhead for the company; but, in 
addition to this, the officers of the company headquarters 
perform various duties in the battalion shops. Shop head- 
quarters and supply platoon provide the personnel required 
for supervisory and clerical positions in the shop headquar- 
ters and in the shop, stock, and tool room. The vehicle 
assembly platoon is charged with the reassembling of complete 
vehicles. These assemblies may be made from new, rebuilt, 
or reconditioned parts and unit assemblies. The heavy units 
platoon is responsible for the reassembling of new or recon- 
ditioned parts of heavy unit assemblies, as, for example, 
transmissions and differentials. The power plant platoon is 
charged with the reassembling of all power units. The allied 
trades platoon is responsible for a variety of labor activities, 
as, for example, upholstering, painting, sheet metal work, 
welding, etc. (See T/O 10-47.) 

(c) The heavy maintenance company is a self-contained 
unit for its own housekeeping and shop work; but, if operating 
alone, it has no personnel attached to perform transportation, 
police, fire, guard, and depot duties. It is probable that the 
smallest fourth echelon shop in the theater of operations will 
normally consist of at least one heavy maintenance battalion. 

(6) Variation in operations. — In addition to the extent and 
difference of repair operations performed by the light and 
heavy maintenance units, there is one other important varia- 
tion in their methods of operations. The limit of repair 
operations prescribed for a light maintenance unit is such 
that, under normal conditions, vehicles sent to third echelon 
shops will be out of service for only a relatively short time. 
An exception to this might be when a thorough inspection 
reveals that the vehicle is in need of a major overhaul. Upon 
completion of the repairs at the light maintenance battalion, 
the vehicles are then returned to the unit to which assigned. 
On the other hand, vehicles requiring fourth echelon mainte- 
nance must be evacuated to the communications zone and 
the period of repair may be quite lengthy. Vehicles repaired 



67 



85-91 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



by the fourth echelon, therefore, pass into a vehicle pool 
until they are called for by requisition to replace vehicles 
anywhere in the theater of operations. 

d. Gasoline and oil supply. — See paragraphs 66 and 67 and 
FM 10-5. 

Section III 
RAIL 

■ 86. General. — See FM 10-5 and 100-10. 

■ 87. Rail Transportation of Individuals. — See FM 10-5 
and TM 10-370. 

■ 88. Rail Transportation of Troops. — See FM 10-5 and 
TM 10-370. 

■ 89. Rail Transportation of Supplies. — a. General. — See 
FM 10-5 and TM 10-370. 

b. Daily trains. — Shipment of supplies to forward areas 
will ordinarily be made on military railways by means of 
daily trains or on special trains in the case of ammunition 
and special supply requirements. Daily trains normally 
carry class I supplies to fulfill daily requirements and their 
movement is controlled by the regulating officer. 

■ 90. Reference. — For details of troop movements by rail 
and other matters concerning rail transportation, see para- 
graph 203 and TM 10-375. 

Section IV 

AIR 

■ 91. Quartermaster Service in the Air Force. — See para- 
graphs 189 and 190 for general fundamentals, mission, and 
duties. 

a. Within each air Dase area designated by the air force 
commander, quartermaster personnel already assigned to 
the air base augmented by the mobile field sections assigned 
to other air base services, and truck, maintenance, and 
labor units as determined by the air force commander oper- 
ate the quartermaster facilities at the following air base 
establishments: 

Air base airdrome (air force depot) . 

Sub-air base airdromes. 



68 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 93 

Quartermaster class I supplies supply point. 
Supply points aviation gasoline and oil. 
Supply points chemicals and ammunition. 
Supply points engineer materials. 
Distributing points for all classes of supplies. 

(1) An air base airdrome is an Air Corps establishment 
assigned to the air force and contains the flying field and 
all installations and facilities for operations, maintenance, 
and supply of troops and their equipment. It is normally 
a one-group or two-group station and is under the com- 
mand of an air base commander with his headquarters 
thereat. When time and space are factors in the distribu- 
tion of supplies from the zone of interior or communications 
zone depots, an air force depot is established at the air base 
airdrome under the command of the air base commander. 
It is a general depot and contains a quartermaster section 
which is operated by the air base quartermaster with per- 
sonnel from the separate quartermaster company (air base) . 
The air force commander will designate the level at which 
stocks of Quartermaster Corps supplies will be maintained. 

(2) In an air base area where transportation facilities 
are limited or distances too great for proper distribution by 
quartermaster truck units, one or more sub-air base air- 
dromes are established by the air base commander for the 
distribution of class I supplies and certain designated items 
of other classes of quartermaster supplies when air trans- 
ports from the air base are inoperative. Quartermaster per- 
sonnel from the mobile field unit of the quartermaster (air 
base) truck and labor units are placed thereat for the 
handling and issue of these supplies to combat units at 
designated distributing points. It is commanded by a rep- 
resentative of the air base commander and functions as a 
small air force depot. 

(3) Where aviation gasoline and lubricants for airplanes 
cannot be handled through the established regulating sta- 
tions for the ground forces, one or more gasoline and oil 
reconsignment points are established on the railroads in the 
air theater of operations for the distribution of aviation gaso- 
line and oil to supply points for the air force. At the re- 
consignment point the reserve supply is established for 
troops being supplied therefrom. The establishment of at 
least one gasoline and oil reconsignment point is normal. 



69 



91 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



A small detail of officers and men from the Air Corps and 
quartermaster air base services to include a rail transporta- 
tion officer from the air base concerned is placed thereat for 
reconsignment of supplies and the handling of the reserve. 

(4) Where quartermaster class I supplies cannot be ob- 
tained direct from convenient quartermaster or commercial 
distributing agencies, a quartermaster class I supplies recon- 
signment point is established on a railroad where these sup- 
plies are made up daily for distribution to air force troops 
at designated distributing points either by rail or by quar- 
termaster truck units assigned to the air force. A repre- 
sentative from the air base commander and a representative 
from the air base rail transportation office with necessary 
personnel for the handling and distribution of supplies is 
placed thereat. 

(5) Supply points for aviation gasoline and oil, ordnance 
ammunition and bombs, chemical supplies to include de- 
contamination equipment, and engineer materials are estab- 
lished in the air base area as needed and operated by their 
respective services under the air base commander concerned. 
The number and type will depend on the particular require- 
ments of the troops served, terrain, transportation facilities 
available, and the location of communications zone depots. 
Quartermaster personnel to include truck and labor units 
of the air force assigned to the air base by the air force com- 
mander are conveniently placed for the proper handling and 
transportation of these supplies from the supply points to 
distributing points for issue to combat troops. 

(6) Distributing points are established by the air base 
commander for requisition and issue of all classes of supplies 
to air force troops. One distributing point is normally es- 
tablished per auxiliary airdrome within the air base area. 
One squadron is normally assigned to an airdrome. The dis- 
tributing point is operated by a representative of the air 
base commander with a detail of service troops from the 
air base. Quartermaster personnel consisting of two or 
three enlisted men from the mobile field section of the air 
base service unit are assigned to this detail. Supplies are 
drawn from the distributing point by the squadron concerned. 

b. The distribution of all classes of quartermaster supplies 
is made from the air force depot whenever possible and 
preferably by air. In situations where quartermaster dis- 



70 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 91 

tributing agencies, other than those under air force command, 
and commercial distributing agencies are conveniently located 
for supply, the air force commander arranges with the re- 
sponsible parties concerned for distribution and issue through 
these agencies. The detailed arrangements are consum- 
mated by the air base quartermaster. 

c. Quartermaster class I supplies are issued on a daily auto- 
matic basis. Two days' supplies are stocked at each distrib- 
uting point for troops served thereat. The rations consist 
of one field and one reserve. 

d. Other classes of quartermaster supplies are procured 
• by the air base commander by requisition, either formal or 

informal, from the zone of the interior or the theater of op- 
erations depots. The air base quartermaster arranges for 
distribution of these supplies to troops from stocks in the air 
force depot, withdrawals against credits, or by requisition 
on depots not under air force command. In the case of class 
IV supplies, the requisition must receive the final approval 
of the air force commander. No stocks of these supplies 
are placed at distributing points. 

e. Advantages and disadvantages. — See FM 10-5. 
/. Employment. — See FM 10-5. 

$r. Airplanes may be employed for the transport and drop- 
ping of ammunition, gasoline and oil, medical supplies, medi- 
cal personnel, and evacuation of wounded. Such employ- 
ment will be limited to exceptional cases such as detachments 
of troops that have been cut off, tank and mechanized units 
which have broken through, or reconnaissance detachments. 
(See FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 



71 



92 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



PART II 
COMBAT ZONE 
CHAPTER 1 
GENERAL 

Section I. Responsibility and functions 

II. Definitions 

Section I 

RESPONSIBILITY AND FUNCTIONS 

■ 92. Services. — a. In the combat zone the function of the 
Quartermaster Corps is to furnish the quartermaster services 
essential to the well-being of the unit concerned. These 
services consist of the following: 

(1) Procurement, storage, and distribution of quarter- 
master supplies, including animals, and means of transpor- 
tation. 

(2) Procurement and operation of quartermaster utilities, 
including storage, maintenance, and repair facilities. 

(3) Establishment and operation of the graves registration 
service. 

(4) Establishment and operation of salvage activities in 
the combat zone. 

(5) Transportation of troops and supplies by land and 
water except such as may be allocated to another service. 

(6) Regulations for operation, maintenance, and inspec- 
tion of motor and animal transportation. 

(7) Establishment and operation of a labor and motor 
pool. 

(8) Procurement of quartermaster units and personnel for 
the combat zone and their distribution among subordinate 
commands. 

b. It is a fundamental of quartermaster organization that 
within each command all quartermaster personnel, units, 

V 



Paragraphs 

92-94 

95-116 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



92 



establishments, or other activities not assigned or attached to 
a subordinate unit constitute a single, self-contained, work- 
able quartermaster service, functioning as such under the 
command of the senior officer of the Quartermaster Corps 
on duty therewith. 




c. The strength and composition of the quartermaster 
service within the combat zone and- each subordinate com- 
mand depends on the organization of the combat zone and 



73 



92-101 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



the functions and movements of each subordinate command. 
Deficiencies in any subordinate unit are met by the assign- 
ment of quartermaster personnel or units from higher head- 
quarters. 

■ 93. Responsibility. — Supplies of all classes are shipped 
by the regulating officer from the communications zone to 
supply points within the combat zone. These supply points 
may be depots, railheads, air bases, or dumps. Upon re- 
ceipt of the supplies at any of these supply points, their 
storage and distribution becomes the responsibility of the 
quartermaster charged with the operation of such 
establishment. 

■ 94. Division of the Combat Zone. — See paragraph 5 and 
figure 10, (See also PM 100-10, 100-5, and 10-5.) 

Section II 
DEFINITIONS 

■ 95. Classes of Supplies. — For simplicity and convenience 
of administration, supplies required by troops in the field 
are divided into five classes as shown in FM 10-5. 

■ 96. Depot. — See paragraph 17. 

■ 97. Railhead (Truckhead, Navigation Head). — See para- 
graph 22. 

■ 98. Dump. — Temporary stock of supplies established by a 
corps, division, or smaller unit. When supplies are ordered 
issued from dumps, the latter become distributing points. 
Dumps are designated by the identity of the unit establishing 
them and by the class of supplies therein, such as 1st In- 
fantry Ammunition Dump or 1st Division Class I Supply 
Dump. (See FM 100-10.) 

■ 99. Supply Point. — See paragraph 18. 

■ 100. Distributing Point. — See paragraph 19. 

■ 101. Control Point. — An agency established by a unit at a 
convenient point on the route of its trains where information 
and instructions are given and received in order to facilitate 
and regulate supply or traffic, for example, "Class I Control 
Point." (See FM 100-10.) 



74 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 102-109 

■ 102. Clearing Station. — Corps or division medical installa- 
tion where sick and wounded are assembled from collecting 
and aid stations, sorted, treated if necessary, and turned over 
to the army for further evacuation. (Formerly called hospi- 
tal station.) (See FM 100-10.) 

■ 103. Train. — a. The train of a unit is that portion of the 
unit's transportation, including personnel, operating under 
the immediate orders of the unit commander primarily for 
supply, evacuation, and maintenance. It is designated by 
the name of the unit, such as 1st Infantry Train. (See FM 
100-10.) 

b. A train may be subdivided according to the service in 
which it is engaged, for example, "Ammunition Train, 1st 
Infantry," "Kitchen Train, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry," or 
"Medical Train, 1st Battalion, 1st Field Artillery." 

c. For divisions and larger units, the term train is seldom 
used, as it will be found more convenient to refer to the 
particular service unit concerned, for example, "1st Quarter- 
master Regiment" instead of "1st Quartermaster Train." 

■ 104. Troop Movements. — a. Troop movements are said to 
be "by marching" when the foot troops move as such and 
other units move by the organic transport. 

b. Troop movements are said to be by rail, water, or motor 
when the foot troops and all other elements move simulta- 
neously by rail, water, or truck, respectively. 

c. Troop movements are said to be "by shuttling" when all 
or a portion of the trucks make successive trips in moving 
both cargoes and troops. 

■ 105. Motor Transport Service. — This embraces all gen- 
eral cargo and personnel transportation, except such elements 
as are assigned organically to troop units, together with the 
necessary operating personnel and maintenance facilities. 
(See T/O 10-500-1 and ch. 1, FM 25-10.) 

.■ 106. Military Railway Service. — It is responsible not only 
for the rail transportation of personnel and supplies, but also 
for maintenance of ways and structures. 

■ 107. Credit. — See paragraph 8. 

■ 108. Call. — See paragraph 9. 

■ 109. Reserves. — See paragraph 11. 



75 



110-116 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



■ 110. Balanced Stocks. — See paragraph 12. 

■ 111. Day of Supply. — See paragraph 13a. 

■ 112. Unit of Fire. — See paragraph 13b. 

■ 113. Daily Telegram. — See paragraph 16. 

■ 114. Automatic Supply. — See paragraph 15. 

■ 115. Gasoline and Oil Allowances. — Gasoline and oil al- 
lowances are prescribed from time to time by the commander 
of the field force. Owing to many indeterminable factors, 
a daily allowance of gasoline and oil ordinarily cannot be 
fixed. 

■ 116. Rations. — o. A ration is the allowance of food for the 
subsistence of one person for one day. For field rations A, 
B, C, and D see FM 100-10 and AR 30-2210. 

b. The grain ration is the amount of grain for one animal 
for one day. It varies from 9 to 14 pounds, depending on the 
weight of the animal. 



76 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 117-118 



CHAPTER 2 
DIVISION QUARTERMASTER UNITS 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Quartermaster regiment 117-119 

U. Division quartermaster's office (square division) _ 120-121 

ift. Operations 122-132 

IV. Quartermaster battalion, Inlantry division 

(triangular) 133-139 

Section I 

QUARTERMASTER REGIMENT 

■ 117. General. — Certain services have been assigned to the 
infantry division (square) to relieve the fighting troops of 
the responsibility of administrative details. The quarter- 
master regiment is one of the units providing such service 
and is organized so as to accomplish the quartermaster service 
necessary to an infantry division. This regiment furnishes 
for this purpose the necessary personnel and units trained 
in the technique of quartermaster administration, supply, 
transportation, and other assigned activities. 

■ 118. Duties. — a. The duties required of the quartermaster 
regiment may be grouped under four general headings — 
administration, supply, transportation, and utility services. 

b. Under administration the regiment is charged with — 

(1) Procuring and disposing of all real estate necessary 
for division operations, and the handling of all claims arising 
from the occupancy of real estate. 

(2) The operation of the division labor pool. 

(3) Maintaining the graves registration service and the 
handling of all mortuary matters. 

c. Under supply, the regiment is charged with the dis- 
tribution of all classes of supply and the maintenance and 
operation of the salvage service. 

d. Transportation duties consist of transporting troops and 
supplies by all means of travel. Truck transportation for 
troops and supplies is of particular importance. 



438624° — 42 6 



77 



118-119 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



e. Under utility services the duties consist of maintaining 
and operating the activities of the following units when 
attached to the division: 

(1) Sales commissary units. 

(2) Sterilization and bath units. 

(3) Laundry units. 

(4) Bakery units. 

(5) Salvage units. 

(6) Other units which may be attached. 

■ 119. Organization of Quartermaster Regiment^— a. In 
order to perform all these services the quartermaster regiment 
has been organized into a regimental headquarters and head- 
quarters company, a service company (less one platoon) , 
two truck battalions, and one light maintenance and car 
battalion. This regiment (including attached medical and 
chaplain) consists of 40 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 885 
enlisted men. 

b. The regimental headquarters consists of a colonel, com- 
manding, and six other officers, who form the nucleus for 
both the regimental and division quartermaster staffs. The 
commander of the regiment acts in the dual capacity of com- 
mander of his regiment and member of the division com- 
mander's special staff. As a commander he performs the 
normal duties of a commanding officer and is responsible for 
the efficient operation of the quartermaster regiment and 
such troops that might be attached to his regiment, in ac- 
cordance with policies, plans, and decisions of the division 
commander. As a special staff officer he supervises all quar- 
termaster activities throughout the division and is responsible 
for the efficient operation of quartermaster units assigned 
or attached. The prescribed duties and responsibilities as a 
special staff officer and commander include — 

(1) Commander of the organic quartermaster units and 
any attached quartermaster troops. 

(2) Adviser to the commander and his general and special 
staff on quartermaster corps matters, including recommenda- 
tions for quartermaster activities. 

(3) Supply of quartermaster equipment and supplies, in- 
cluding animals and motor transport supplies. 



78 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 119 

(4) Procurement and operation of quartermaster utilities 
and storage, maintenance, and repair facilities. 

(5) Installation and operation of salvage service. 

(6) Operation of graves registration service. 

(7) Transportation of troops and supplies except such as 
may be allocated to another service. 

(8) Maintenance and operation of labor and motor pools. 

(9) Technical inspection of motor and animal transporta- 
tion and supervision within limits prescribed by the division 
commander of all quartermaster activities within subordinate 
units. (See PM 101-5 and 100-5.) 

c. Cooperation within the special staff is necessary to proper 
staff team play. The division quartermaster must, through 
the very nature of his mission, work in close harmony not only 
with the other members of the special staff, but all sections 
of the general staff and commanders of all subordinate units. 
A quartermaster's relations with the commanders of sub- 
ordinate units are those of a special staff officer of a higher 
unit commander. He, in no sense whatever, exercises his 
command functions in such dealings. 

d. The designation of the six officers in regimental head- 
quarters is as follows: 

(1) Lieutenant colonel — executive and assistant division 
quartermaster. 

(2) Captain — quartermaster supply officer. 

(3) Captain — intelligence and plans and training officer. 

(4) Captain — transportation officer. 

(5) Captain — adjutant. 

(6) Captain — regimental supply officer. 

e. Regimental headquarters is normally organized into three 
principal sections. The first section (S-l) , under the regi- 
mental adjutant, a captain, handles all administrative and 
personnel details. The second section combines the duties 
of an intelligence (S-2) and plans and training (S-3) , under 
a captain (S-2 and S-3). The third section, also under a 
captain, takes care of all regimental supply details (S-4) . 

/. The headquarters company is divided into a company 
headquarters and a gasoline supply platoon. (See T/O 10- 
272.) 

(1) The company headquarters performs the normal duties 
of housekeeping for the regimental headquarters and the 



79 



119 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



company. These duties include the clerical work, supply, and 
messing necessary for the proper operation of the company.' 

(2) A division quartermaster section furnishes all the'en- 
listed personnel necessary to operate the office of the division 
quartermaster. 

(3) A regimental headquarters section provides the per- 
sonnel incident to the operation of the regimental command 
post. 

(4) The gasoline supply platoon furnishes the transporta- 
tion and personnel required to distribute gasoline and oil to 
the kitchens and to the motor vehicles of the division. Any 
prescribed reserve of gasoline and oil normally is transported 
in this platoon. This platoon does not supply the quarter- 
master regiment with its gasoline and oil, for trucks are 
available in each of the three battalions for this purpose. 
The platoon normally is bivouacked near the class I supply 
railhead or near the bivouac of the truck battalions. 

g. The service company, designated company "S", consists 
of a company headquarters to administer to the company, 
and two platoons. However, the quartermaster regiment has 
only the company headquarters and one platoon of the service 
company. Each platoon is subdivided into two sections of 
four squads each. The function of the company is to load 
and unload supplies at various divisional supply points and 
to provide such other labor that might be assigned it by 
competent authority. The company forms the nucleus for 
any labor pool that might be organized within the division. 
It usually moves with the truck battalions and bivouacs in 
the vicinity of the class I supply railhead. It is estimated 
that labor troops of this company can move an average of 
approximately two-fifths (0.42) of a ton per man per hour for 
a period of 12 hours. (See T/O 10-67.) 

ft. (1) The two truck battalions are numbered the 1st and 
2d battalions. Each consists of two companies and a battalion 
headquarters. A and B companies compose the 1st battalion,, 
and C and D companies compose the 2d battalion. In each 
battalion, the battalion headquarters directs the operations 
and performs the usual administrative duties of a battalion 
headquarters. 

(2) The truck battalions transport supplies and troops as 
needed, such division reserves that may be prescribed by 



80 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 119 

higher headquarters, and forms the nucleus of a motor pool 
when prescribed. (See T/O 10-285.) 

(3) Each company consists of a company headquarters and 
two platoons, each platoon is further divided into a platoon 
headquarters and two sections. The company headquarters 
furnishing the personnel and equipment for company house- 
keeping is divided into two groups, one the operations group, 
and the other the administration group. The operations 
group, under the supervision of the company commander, 
composed of the first sergeant (truckmaster) and such other 
enlisted personnel as is necessary, directs and controls the 
operations of the company. The administrative group, under 
the company commander, includes the supply and mess ser- 
geant, company clerk, cooks, and mechanics and drivers of 
headquarters vehicles; it performs the administrative and 
supply duties for the company. The two platoons furnish the 
transportation. Each platoon is commanded by a lieutenant, 
assisted by a staff sergeant, as assistant truckmaster. Each 
vehicle carries one extra 10-gallon can of gasoline in addition 
to the gasoline in the vehicle tank as a reserve. Each com- 
pany can provide forty-eight 2% -ton trucks for division 
transport purposes. The remaining trucks are available for 
company administration and replacements. In addition, 40 
cargo trailers, %- to 1-ton, 2-wheeled, are provided. (See 
T/O 10-57.) These battalions normally bivouac in the vicin- 
ity of the class I supply railhead or ammunition railhead. 

i. (1) The third battalion is known as the light mainte- 
nance and car battalion. It consists of a battalion headquar- 
ters, one light maintenance company, and one car company. 
(See T/O 10-275.) 

(2) The battalion headquarters performs the normal duties 
of a battalion headquarters. 

(3) (a) Company E is also known as the light maintenance 
company. It consists of a company headquarters for proper 
direction and control of the company and three platoons — 
one supply and two maintenance. (See T/O 10-137.) Each 
platoon is capable of operating a third echelon repair shop. 
The company bivouacs in the vicinity of the shop or shops. 

(b) It provides personnel trained in replacement of unit 
assemblies, minor repairs to automotive equipment, and tech- 
nique of motor transport supply and is prepared to set up 
and operate two repair shops. It also receives, stores, and 



81 



119-120 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

distributes motor transport supplies and equipment normally 
furnished by the Quartermaster Corps. It furnishes techni- 
cal advice on motor repair and maintenance to the division 
and subordinate units and performs inspection service 
throughout the division. 

(c) Each repair shop requires about 10,000 square feet of 
operating floor space and about 30,000 square feet of parking A 
space. 

(4) (a) Company P is the car company. It consists of a 
company headquarters, a car platoon, and a motorcycle pla- 
toon. (See T/O 10-277.) 

(b) The company headquarters performs the normal duties 
of a headquarters. The car platoon furnishes the necessary 
passenger cars for the division commander and his staff offi- 
cers. This company usually bivouacs in the vicinity of the 
rear echelon of division headquarters. 

(c) The motorcycle platoon provides the message center 
with motorcycles and drivers. These act as messengers for 
division headquarters, and, because of the nature of the duties 
performed, the messengers should be kept on this work 
permanently. 

j. Completing the organization , of the regiment are the 
attached medical and chaplain personnel whose normal duties 
consist of looking after the health and welfare of the regi- 
mental personnel. (See T/O 10-271.) 

k. All quartermaster units, when attached to the division, 
operate under the division quartermaster and are normally 
attached to the quartermaster regiment of the division. (See 
FM 10-5.) 

Section II 

DIVISION QUARTERMASTER'S OFFICE 
(SQUARE DIVISION) 

■ 120. Organization of Office of Division Quartermaster. — 
There is no prescribed organization of a division quartermas- 
ter's office and any organization that adequately serves the 
needs of the regiment and division will be satisfactory. It 
should be borne in mind that the personal' characteristics of 
the quartermaster, state of training of the unit, and type and 
organization of both the general and special staffs will greatly 
influence the quartermaster in organizing his office. The 



82 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



120 



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83 



120 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 




84 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 120-121 

workable organization outlined herein is adequate to provide 
the administration for a unit of any size and, with modifica- 
tion deemed necessary by each individual, should provide a 
suitable organization. This organization facilitates the direc- 
tion and administration of all quartermaster activities within 
the division. 

■ 121. Duties and Functions. — Generally all the duties and 
functions of the quartermaster can be grouped under three 
main headings: administration, supply, and transportation. 
See figure 11 for a suggested type organization. (See FM 
10-5.) 

a. The warrant officer assigned to the regiment may act as 
the chief of the administrative division, or the division may 
operate directly under the regimental intelligence, plans, and 
training officer, who would thus combine this duty with his 
responsibilities as a regimental staff officer. A subdivision of 
this division is the graves registration section, which is super- 
vised by an officer detailed from the service company for this 
specific purpose. The administrative division performs the 
essential functions as enumerated in FM 10-5. 

b. The supply division operates under the division quarter- 
master supply officer. This division may be divided into 
three sections, the first section, operating under the first 
lieutenant commanding the gasoline and oil supply platoon 
of headquarters company, handles class I and class HI sup- 
plies. The second section, operating under the lieutenant 
from company headquarters of headquarters company, 
handles class n and class IV supplies. The third section, 
operating under a sergeant from headquarters company, 
handles all duties pertaining to salvage. The principal 
duties of the supply division are as indicated in FM 10-5. 

c. A captain from the regimental headquarters is assigned 
to the transportation division as transportation officer, whose 
primary duties are those of a transportation officer in any 
quartermaster office. He deals principally with rail, water, 
and motor shipments; he may be assisted by a division 
motor officer and a division maintenance officer. This divi- 
sion may operate under the senior battalion commander 
of the truck battalions, who may be designated the division 
motor officer. One of his assistants may be the commander 
of the third battalion, who acts as the division maintenance 



85 



121-122 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

officer. In that case, the captain would be a second assistant, 
in charge of normal quartermaster transportation duties. 
The general duties of this division are listed in FM 10-5. 

d. The relationship existing between the heads of the three 
divisions and the division quartermaster is that of a staff 
officer to his commanding officer. In most cases all of the 
recommendations made by the division quartermaster to 
the division commander have been previously received by 
the quartermaster from the heads of the three divisions. 
These officers make the detailed study and reconnaissances 
necessary, and submit their recommendations to the quar- 
termaster. He in turn makes such reconnaissance as may 
be necessary, studies the recommendations of his assistants, 
questioning them where necessary, and then, after making 
such changes as he deems advisable, submits his recommenda- 
tions to the commander. 

e. Location of division quartermaster's office. — Because 
of the nature of the quartermaster's work, his office should 
be located near the rear echelon of division headquarters. 
The rear echelon contains those special staff officers whose 
primary mission is supply, evacuation, administration, and 
welfare and usually an assistant from the fourth section of 
the general staff. Wherever possible, the division quarter- 
master's office should be housed in the same building with the 
rear echelon of division headquarters. 

/. Location of command post. — Because of the dual position 
of the quartermaster, the regimental command post should 
be located near the division quartermaster's office. If the 
situation permits, the command post should be in the same 
building with the division quartermaster's office, preferably 
adjoining it. (See FM 100-10.) 

Section in 

OPERATIONS 

■ 122. Fundamentals op Supply. — a. Basis of supply. — When 
the trains of a division are motorized, supply operations for 
all classes of supply are conducted by either regimental or 
divisional transportation from army supply points to the using 
troops. Supplies are not normally transferred to other trucks 
or placed in dumps from the time they are received at army 
supply points until they are delivered to the using troops. 



86 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 122-123 

b. Fundamentals. — Troops should not be burdened with a 
greater quantity of supplies than is necessary for their well- 
being, nor should their attention be unnecessarily diverted 
by supply details. The supply system should permit con- 
tinuity, flexibility, elasticity, and provide maximum mobility 
with the greatest degree of simplicity. 

c. Responsibility. — The division commander is responsible 
for the supply of his unit and he must insure that the require- 
ments placed on subordinate units for the utilization of their 
transportation in effecting supply are not excessive. He 
determines the degree of responsibility that will be placed 
upon subordinate commanders for effecting resupply with 
their organic transportation. This decision can be deter- 
mined only by a study of the supply and evacuation situation 
and must be based upon a consideration of many factors. In 
order to determine the responsibility to be placed upon sub- 
ordinate commanders, the commander must evaluate the tac- 
tical situation, the reserves to be carried, the probable 
expenditure rate, the distances involved, the routes available, 
and the restrictions imposed by higher authority, and the 
terrain. 

d. Prescribed load. — The quantity and type of rations to be 
carried by individuals and on unit trains as a prescribed load 
is announced from time to time by the division commander. 
The factors that influence this decision are the probability 
of combat, distance to army supply points, defiles, amount of 
transportation available, character and condition of road 
net, danger of hostile air and mechanized attack, and the 
probable relative urgency of class I supply versus other 
supplies. (See FM 10-5 and FM 100-10.) 

■ 123. Class I Supply. — See FM 10-5. 

a. Daily telegram. — See FM 10-5 and figure 12. 

b. Daily train. — The supplies are normally shipped to the 
regulating officer in bulk from one or more depots. For ex- 
ample, one depot might ship meat for the entire army, an- 
other might ship bread, another the remainder of the ration, 
and still another might ship the illuminants, etc., or one depot 
might ship everything bulk loaded. The regulating officer has 
these supplies broken down into divisional and similar unit 
lots, each lot being consolidated on a section of a train known 
as the unit section. One, two, or three of these unit sections 



87 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



make up the daily train. As the daily train passes each rail- 
head, the unit section for the division supplied at that railhead 
is left for unloading. It is normal to supply only one division 
from each railhead, but if the situation warrants it two 
divisions or similar units may be supplied. If two divisions 
are supplied at the same railhead, corps or army must pre- 
scribe the hours each will draw supplies. Additional cars 
carrying other supplies, such as gasoline, oil, engineer sup- 
plies, ammunition, etc., may be added to the unit section of 
the daily train. If all classes of supplies are received at the 
same railhead, the division G-4 must coordinate the drawing 
of the various classes. (See PM 10-5.) 



1 



I II III XX X X XXXX 000 



a = Strenth reports 

b = Dolly* telegram (requisition) 

c= Copies for information 



. Figure 12. — Class I supply requisition and daily telegram. 



c. Railhead. — See FM 100-10 and 10-5 and figure 9. 

d. Railhead reserves. — See paragraph 56. 

e. Rations. — (1) Paragraph 116 defines the various types 
of rations for field use. 

(2) The "A" ration will, except under exceptional circum- 
stances, be issued daily from army class I railheads to all 
divisions and other units not actively engaged with the 
enemy. 

(3) In battle, the "B" or "C" ration will normally be is- 
sued. The "D" ration will, when the situation warrants the 
issue of an individual reserve ration, be issued to units or 



88 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123 

individuals. However, whenever possible, the "B" or "C" 
ration should be issued daily to all of the troops. 

(4) The quantity and type of rations to be carried by 
individuals and on unit trains as a prescribed load are an- 
nounced from time to time by the division or higher 
commander. 

/. Issue at class I supply railhead. — (1) Prior to the ar- 
rival of the daily train each day, the division quartermaster 
supply officer submits to the railhead officer a strength re- 
port of the units as of that day and the method of distri- 
bution to be used. Prom that report and the information 
as to the number of rations due in on the daily train, the 
railhead officer knows whether he must draw from his re- 
serve or whether he has an excess of rations. Prom this 
information he can also plan the sorting and loading for 
that particular issue. 

(2) Upon the arrival of the daily train, the railhead 
officer directs the unloading of the train, the sorting of 
supplies, and their loading on the divisional vehicles. He 
and his platoon are assisted in this work by additional labor 
furnished by the service company of the quartermaster regi- 
ment. As soon as all the supplies are loaded on the divi- 
sional transportation, the quartermaster supply officer gives 
a receipt to the railhead officer for all the supplies drawn. 

(3) (a) When the field forces are operating in the pres- 
ence of the enemy, distribution of class I supplies will most 
likely be conducted during hours of darkness. This provides 
some measure of defense for supply operations and helps 
prevent the enemy from gaining information relative to the 
locations of trains and supply establishments. The time 
required to effect distribution, therefore, becomes an im- 
portant factor. 

(b) The distance from railhead to distributing points, the 
condition of roads and the volume of traffic moving over 
them, the time required to unload supplies at distributing 
points, and the time required to sort and load supplies at 
the railhead are all variable factors. Only the time required 
to sort and load supplies at the railhead are discussed in 
this manual. 

(c) The tome required at the railhead to sort and load ra- 
tions, grain, and hay for unit distribution varies widely with 
conditions existing at a railhead. If ample platform space. 



89 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



labor, and mechanical aids such as warehouse trucks, etc., 
are available for handling the supplies from railroad car to 
platform, thence to motor truck, it is possible to complete 
truckloading in approximately the same time it requires to 
unload a car of miscellaneous supplies into a warehouse, 
possibly as short a time as 2Vz to 3 hours. On the other hand, 
if supplies must be handled directly from car to truck, loading 
time must necessarily be longer, owing to the smaller number 
of trucks which can be loaded simultaneously and the diffi- 
culty of sorting supplies in the cramped space of a loaded 
box car. This difficulty Is of little importance if the car con- 
tains only a few different commodities; but sorting in the 
car is impracticable when the car contains from 15 to 18 or 
more varied commodities. The latter will usually be the 
case in a car containing the smaller components of the ra- 
tion, hence the desirability, as a timesaving expedient, of 
loading the smaller components of the ration from the rail- 
head reserve. For a rough estimate, 2 hours should be allowed 
for unloading the train and sorting the supplies. For unit dis- 
tribution employing quartermaster trucks, add to this 2 more 
hours. When railhead distribution is to be made, allow 4 
hours for loading the trucks in addition to the 2 hours for 
unloading the train and sorting at the railhead. If the sup- 
plies are to be bulk loaded on quartermaster trucks, allow 2 
hours. In actual operations, this time can probably be re- 
duced, for as the personnel becomes more familiar with the 
work it will naturally become more efficient in the handling 
of supplies. Every effort should be made, however, to com- 
plete not only the loading of the trucks, but also the entire 
distribution under cover of darkness. 

(d) Ample roadway for circulation of vehicles through the 
railhead and for maneuvering vehicles at loading points, and 
road space at or in the immediate vicinity of the railroad, 
where empty vehicles can be held awaiting their turn to load 
and where loaded vehicles can be assembled into suitable 
groups for movement to distributing points, simplify the 
traffic problem at the railhead and affect loading time. 

(e) Whatever the conditions at the railhead, loading op- 
erations can proceed in an orderly and expeditious manner 
only if they follow a carefully devised plan. Such a plan 
should contain specific details regarding — 

1. Organization of the transport into truck groups (one 
group for each regiment or similar unit) . 
90 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123 

2. The load, by commodity and amount, for each truck 

of a group. 

3. Allotment of labor at each loading point at the rail- 

.head and to accompany each truck group to divi- 
sion distributing points or dumps. 
(/) 1. The loading schedule may be based on either of the 
following methods of operation: 

(a) Require that all trucks of a group complete 

loading before any truck of the follow- 
ing group begins loading. 

(b) Require trucks of a group to begin loading 

at any loading point just as soon as load- 
ing operations at that point have been 
completed by the preceding group. 

2. The first method is the simpler of the two, so offers 

less chance for error or confusion. Its principal 
disadvantage is the possible loss of time. A 
truck loading with certain commodities, such as 
vegetables, will complete loading in much less 
time than one loading with the smaller com- 
ponents, so operations at some loading points 
may be suspended for varying periods of time. 
The second method is timesaving in that it pro- 
vides for uninterrupted operations at each load- 
ing point. However, because trucks of different 
groups are intermingled during loading opera- 
tions, this method requires much closer supervi- 
sion and offers more chance for error and 
confusion. 

3. In some situations it may be advantageous to plan 

distribution of hay, or hay and grain, as a sep- 
arate operation, in which case the truck groups 
so employed operate independently of the groups 
employed in distribution of rations and wood. 

4. In general, the simplest method which meets the 

needs of a particular situation is the one most 

likely to work successfully. 
(4) If an "A" ration is delivered, special care must be 
exercised in handling the perishables. Paulins should be 
spread to receive the ice and fresh meats, and other paulins 
used to cover them until they are loaded in the trucks. 



91 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



Fresh bread should be shipped in sacks, but if not so shipped, 
care should be exercised in its handling; if sacks can be se- 
cured by quartermaster supply officer, the bread should be 
issued in them. 

(5) In distributing supplies, the railhead officer should 
issue whole packages to the division. One method of handling 
small components is to receive and issue them for a period 
of 5, 10, or 15 days. The situation, however, may not permit 
this, and it may become necessary to resort to a day-to-day 
issue. In order to make an issue of a week or 10 days' supply 
of small components, such as pepper, spices, etc., it will be 
necessary for the quartermaster supply officer and the rail- 
head officer to make special arrangements with the regulating 
officer. 

(6) In some instances wood and hay may not be shipped 
to the railhead. The division quartermaster is then charged 
with the procurement of these supplies from local sources 
whenever needed. (See FM 10-5.) 

g. Distribution by division quartermaster. — (1) The method 
of distribution of class I supplies will be determined by the 
division commander. The division quartermaster, in making 
his estimate of the situation, carefully considers the methods 
to be employed. He recommends to G-4 the methods he 
believes best suited to the situation and G-4 approves or 
disapproves these recommendations. In some instances, the 
division commander may not delegate the authority to G-4, 
in which case his recommendations must be submitted to 
the commander. The method of distribution normally is 
determined during the G-l-G-4 special staff conferenee. 
However, the quartermaster may recommend changes in the 
method of distribution whenever the supply situation or 
availability of trucks alter the situation. 

(2) There are several methods and. combinations of meth- 
ods of distributing class I supplies. Unit distribution and 
railhead distribution are the principal methods. A rarely 
used method is through division distributing points or dumps. 
Combinations of these methods are possible. Figure 13 dia- 
grammatically shows three methods of distribution. 

(3) Unit distribution. — (a) Unit distribution is made by 
the quartermaster, utilizing trucks from the quartermaster 
regiment. Delivery of the supplies is made to the kitchens, 
bivouacked by battalions or regiments. It is net necessary 



92 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123 



for the kitchen trucks to be actually in the bivouac at the 
time delivery is made. A representative of the unit should 
be there in order to receive the supplies, and they may be 
dumped on the ground preparatory to issue to the kitchens. 
Unit distribution is used whenever ample quartermaster 
transport is available and time and space permit, or where 
regimental transportation is not available. Inasmuch as the 
function of the quartermaster regiment is the supply of 
troops in the field, this method might be considered normal in 
a square division and the division quartermaster should al- 
ways endeavor to utilize it whenever possible. (See fig. 14.) 



UNIT 
DISTRIBUTING 
POINTS 



RAILHEAD 
DISTRIBUTION 



DIVISION 
DISTRIBUTING 
POINTS 



trkIqI 




Figtxre 13. — Three methods of class I supply distribution. 



(6) The estimate of truck requirements for unit distribu- 
tion is based upon the weight and the items of the ration to 
be delivered. In order to facilitate loading at the railhead 
it will frequently be desirable to have a greater number of 
trucks for each unit group than that actually required in 
terms of truck tons. If this is done, trucks loading less than 
a ton of meat would make only one stop at the railhead even 
though they had less than a full load. Every effort should 
be made to limit the number of stops at the railhead for each 
truck to not more than two, for example, one truck might 
take a partial load of meat and complete the load with small 
components. The quartermaster trucks assemble at the rail- 



438624 ' — 42 7 



93 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



head in groups, each group to have the required number of 
trucks necessary to transport the supplies for one kitchen 
group. As these kitchen groups vary in size, so will the 
number of trucks vary within each group. For example, a 
regiment of truck-drawn 75-mm field artillery may require 
about three trucks, an infantry regiment four trucks, and 
the medical regiment only two. These groups are loaded 
at the railhead and are then consolidated into a convoy. The 
convoy follows a prescribed route and the truck groups are 
dropped off at the various unit distributing points. If pro- 



tection is not essential, truck groups might proceed separately 
to the bivouacs of the kitchens they supply. 

(c) Whenever unit distribution is employed, class I sup- 
ply control stations should be employed. These stations are 
located at prominent terrain features along the route fol- 
lowed by the quartermaster trucks. Each station has a 
representative of the units being served. As the convoy 
reaches this point, it is broken up and the representatives 
of the various units guide each truck group to the proper 
kitchen bivouac. The use of these control stations greatly 
facilitates the delivery of supplies and prevents truck groups 
from getting lost. Because it expedites delivery this system 




DMLY TRfilN TO AUHIVe 
AT HUO PaiOH 7t> MIDNfQHT 
IP FOSSfBLf //V OR.OEH THfTT 
qM /VIAY COMfLfiTf .X 



Figure 14. — Unit distribution of class I supplies. 



94 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123 

should be used even during daylight distribution, unless the 
quartermaster personnel is thoroughly familiar with the 
location of all units. 

(d) Information as to the method of distribution and loca- 
tion of the class I supply control station should be given to 
the troops either in fragmentary orders or in the administra- 
tive order whenever issued. (See FM J 0-5.) 

(4) Railhead distribution. — (a) In railhead distribution, 
regimental or kitchen trucks of the various units, operating 
under the supervision of a quartermaster supply officer, draw 
class I supplies at the railhead. In many situations it will 
be found that this method of distribution is th,e only one 
that can be utilized. 

(b) The kitchen or regimental trucks are grouped under 
the supervision of the unit supply officer, and report to the 
railhead at a time specified by division headquarters. Upon 
arrival at the railhead, the railhead officer, assisted by the 
quartermaster supply officer, issues the supplies for each or- 
ganization. The unit supply officer receipts to the quarter- 
master supply officer for the supplies received and the quar- 
termaster supply officer, in turn, receipts to the railhead 
officer for all the supplies issued to the division. The only 
time that the unit trucks are under the direct supervision of 
the quartermaster supply officer is during the period that they 
are at the railhead. Upon completion of the issue to any 
one unit, that unit is released and proceeds to its bivouac, 
where the supplies are broken into kitchen lots. The num- 
ber of trucks required by each unit will be similar to that 
given in subparagraph (3) (b) above. 

(c) In order to coordinate the issue of the supplies at 
the railhead, the method of distribution and time that each 
unit will draw supplies must be incorporated in either frag- 
mentary orders or the administrative order of the division. 

(d) Railhead distribution may be partial or complete, that 
is, some units may draw supplies at the railhead, utilizing 
their own transportation, and some units may have unit 
distribution. The selection of the units for railhead distri- 
bution and unit distribution will depend on the situation. 
In some instances, those units that are most distant from 
the railhead might have unit distribution, while those that 
are bivouacked near the railhead might have railhead distri- 
bution. Railhead distribution is complete when all units of 
the division draw their supplies at the railhead. 

95 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(e) Railhead distribution normally is used when quarter- 
master transportation is not available and when there is 
sufficient transportation available within the regiment and 
similar units. It should be used, however, only when this 
method of distribution can be completed under cover of 
darkness aad when no other division or similar unit is being 
served at that railhead. It might also be used in rest areas 
where time and secrecy are not major considerations. 

(/) In view of the fact that the transportation facilities 
within the regiments of the division are limited, it may 
frequently be necessary for the units to use their kitchen 
trucks in order to accomplish railhead distribution. This 
can be done by having the kitchen trucks carry the kitchens 
or prepared meals to the front line, and there, unload the 
kitchens or prepared meals, so that the men may be fed dur- 
ing the night. Prom there the trucks can proceed to the 
railhead to draw supplies, these supplies to be delivered at 
the unit bivouacs by these trucks. Then the same trucks 
can proceed to the front lines, pick up the kitchens or such 
equipment left there, and return to their unit bivouacs. 
(See FM 10-5.) 

(5) Division distributing points. — (o) The division quar- 
termaster may deliver class I supplies to division distribut- 
ing points or dumps. 

(6) In making distribution to division distributing points 
the quartermaster supply officer has the supplies at the rail- 
head bulk-loaded for all those units being served at each di- 
vision distributing point. The regimental units send their 
trucks to the division distributing point. The quartermaster 
breaks down the supplies into regimental or similar unit 
lots and turns them over to the units. The quartermaster 
vehicles then return to their bivouac or proceed on any other 
mission ordered. The unit vehicles return to their bivouacs 
and complete the distribution in the same manner as in other 
methods of distribution. 

(c) The location of these division distributing points and 
the time that the various units will draw their supplies must 
be incorporated either in fragmentary orders or in the ad- 
ministrative order of the division. Usually two or three 
distributing points for the division, supplying units of ap- 
proximately the size of the brigade, are necessary. 



96 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123 

(d) This method is not normal and will rarely be used. 
However, there are certain situations where it will be found 
advantageous, for example, in retrograde movements, where 
it is advisable to dump class I supplies at distributing points, 
so that the unit kitchens may pick them up while moving 
toward the rear. It can also be used when the distance or 
time involved is too great for either the quartermaster regi- 
ment to make unit distribution or the regimental units 
to draw supplies at the railhead during the specified time. 
As the time to sort and load the supplies at the railhead is 
considerably less than for other methods of -distribution, 
this method might be used when, owing to the danger of hos- 
tile air attack, rapid dispersion of supplies becomes impera- 
tive. Where class I supply dumps have been established by the 
division, the units may draw their supplies from these dumps 
in a manner similar to that in railhea'd distribution, in 
which case unit trucks proceed to the dump, draw supplies 
for their regiment, and then return to their bivouac. (See 
FM 10-5.) 

(6) Labor for handling supplies at the division distribut- 
ing points, railhead, or at the division dumps is furnished 
by the service company of the quartermaster regiment. 
Labor at unit distributing points is furnished by the units 
receiving the supplies. 

(7) Special methods. — Owing to circumstances beyond 
the control of the quartermaster, it may be necessary for him 
to devise special combinations and methods of distribution; 
for example, it might, under certain conditions, be necessary 
for him to make unit distribution to some units, railhead dis- 
tribution to others, and establish a division distributing point 
for others. These special methods of distribution, however, 
should be kept at a minimum. (See FM 10-5.) 

h. Division reserve. — Each kitchen can usually carry one 
ration and the unconsumed portion of another. This means 
that a kitchen may have as a maximum one and two-thirds 
rations. The ration cycle may begin with any meal and 
consists of that meal and the next two consecutive meals 
and continues daily until changed by competent authority. 
Breakfast, dinner, and supper each day provide one com- 
plete cycle. When supplies are delivered during the night, 
the most convenient meal to begin the cycle with is the 
evening meal, or supper. When the cycle begins with supper 



97 



123 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



and the rations are delivered at night, the ration delivered 
one night will be for consumption beginning with supper 
of the following night. In rest camps and under other fa- 
vorable circumstances the cycle may begin with breakfast. 
When this is done the ration will usually be delivered during 
the day. If reserve rations are ordered carried in the 
quartermaster regiment, they remain intact until such time 
as it becomes necessary to issue them. They may, however, 
be issued prior to the arrival of the daily train, provided the 
supplies arriving on the daily train are of the same type 
as those carried in the quartermaster regiment. If this is 
done, the ration must be replaced in the quartermaster serv- 
ice train as soon as practical after it has arrived at the rail- 
head. The issue of any reserve ration carried in the quarter- 
master train should never be made unless it has the prior 
approval of the division commander. (See PM 10-5.) 

i. Rations. — If an "A" ration is to arrive on the daily train, 
every effort should be made to distribute as soon as possible 
and distribution of the reserve ration carried in the quarter- 
master train should be avoided. 

j. Distribution of class I supplies in varying situations. — 
(1) On the march. — (a) The supply of troops on the march 
is not difficult. Although railhead distribution might be 
considered normal for supply on the march, any of the 
methods of distribution mentioned may be utilized. Sup- 
plies may be secured by the regimental kitchens either before 
the march begins or after the march ends. When combat 
is imminent, it is more desirable to have the supplies issued 
to the kitchens prior to the initiation of the march, as it 
provides a full complement of rolling reserves with the 
marching of columns. However, this may only be done if 
the kitchens have sufficient capacity to carry a full day's 
supply of class I supplies. In other situations, where the 
kitchen trucks lack carrying capacity, it may be necessary 
for the kitchens to secure their supplies in the new bivouacs. 
The method of distribution will depend upon the situation, 
the same general fundamentals applying as have been enun- 
ciated in subparagraph gr above. 

(b) If distribution is to be made in the new bivouac area 
it may be possible to advance the railhead during the march. 
This can, however, only be done when friendly troops are 
protecting the new bivouac. If the distance between the 



98 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 123-124 

using troops and the railhead is too great for the kitchens 
or quartermaster trucks to make the return trip during the 
prescribed period, distributing points may be set up between 
the new bivouac and the railhead. 

(2) Attack. — (a) In the attack, the railhead and other 
quartermaster installations can be located relatively close 
to the combat area. However, this does not mean that they 
should be located so close as to endanger the installations. 

(b) In a wide envelopment, special attention must be given 
to the supply of the enveloping force. If the envelopment is 
very wide and the distance too great, it may be necessary to 
attach to the enveloping force extra transportation from the 
quartermaster regiment. The supply of the holding force 
will provide no special problem of supply. 

(3) Pursuit. — In the pursuit, special attention must be given 
to the encircling force. In many instances it may be found 
necessary to attach additional quartermaster trucks to units 
of the encircling force in order to insure adequate supply. 
It must be borne in mind that in some situations the en- 
circling force will be out of touch with the supply system 
for several days. The direct pressure force will provide no 
special supply problem. Supply installations can be pushed 
well forward in the pursuit. 

(4) Defense. — In the defense, the railhead and quarter- 
master installations will probably be located well to the rear. 
Reserves of class I supplies may be kept either at the railhead 
or at division dumps. 

(5) Navigation head and truckhead. — The same methods 
of distribution as outlined for supplies received at a railhead 
apply to truckheads and navigation heads. (See PM 10-5.) 

■ 124. Gasoline and Oil Supply. — a. General. — The army 
quartermaster establishes gasoline and oil supply points at 
all railheads and depots, and at other convenient locations 
on the main supply routes leading thereto. Some of these 
installations may be civilian gasoline filling stations taken 
over by the army quartermaster. In addition, it will be neces- 
sary for gasoline and oil to be delivered to the division quar- 
termaster in order to supply those vehicles, such as weapon 
carriers, prime movers, etc., that are in the forward area of 
the division. Each vehicle carries, in addition to the gasoline 



99 



124-126 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

in tanks on the vehicle and the oil in the crankcase, a 
10-gallon can of gasoline. 

b. Supply vehicles. — Those vehicles which are traveling be- 
tween the division area and army supply points should be 
supplied with gasoline and oil, either at the supply point 
or at some convenient filling station en route. The drivers 
of these vehicles should make every effort to arrive in the 
division area with the maximum amount of gasoline and oil 
and should, therefore, refill at the last possible supply point 
prior to entry into the division area. 

c. Supply by division quartermaster. — A reserve of gasoline 
and oil, in containers, is carried in each unit within the divi- 
sion. As far as practicable, initial distribution of this reserve 
will be made to each motor vehicle. This constitutes the 
entire division reserve. The supply of those vehicles in the 
forward area will be by the division quartermaster, who will 
transport the gasoline in 10-gallon containers to division 
gasoline and Oil distributing points, where the units will ex- 
change their empty containers for full ones. If facilities are 
available in the forward area, the division quartermaster 
might establish filling stations, utilizing any workable 
commercial facilities available. 

d. Requirements of method of distribution. — Receipts for 
any gasoline and oil issued by the division quartermaster 
should be secured from the units receiving these supplies. 
These receipts serve not only as a receipt for the gasoline 
and oil drawn, but also form a basis for the requirements of 
the daily telegram. 

e. Special gasoline. — Special gasoline may be required for 
use in cooking ranges and gasoline lanterns. This gasoline 
will probably be issued with the class I supplies. If not 
available at that time, it will be distributed separately. 

/. Transportation. — If the division or higher commander 
prescribes that the reserve of gasoline and oil be carried in 
the quartermaster regiment, it will normally be carried in 
the vehicles of the gasoline and oil supply platoon of the 
headquarters company. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 125. Class II and Class IV Supplies. — a. Class II and class 
IV supplies (.less animals) . — See FM 10-5. 

b. Animal replacements. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 126. Water Supply. — See FM 10-5. 



100 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 127 

■ 127. Employment of Transport. — a. The transportation 
Of the division quartermaster unit constitutes the division 
reserve, which is seldom adequate to meet in full the require- 
ments for resupply of the division during a protracted period. 
It is, therefore, essential that the use of this transportation 
be planned in advance and that all activities involved in its 
use be coordinated by the division motor officer. Whenever 
trucks are sent out on missions that do not involve their 
entire capacity, the division motor officer should contact other 
services and see if they can use the extra available capacity. 
This transportation is available to the division commander 
for the purpose of transporting supplies and troops and of 
such other work as he may deem necessary. Some of the 
more important duties performed by the quartermaster truck 
battalions are the transportation of class I supplies, the 
transportation of both small arms and field artillery ammuni- 
tion, assisting in the movement of engineer supplies, and, 
wherever practicable, transporting class II and class IV sup- 
plies for the division. It may, in some instances, be necessary 
to utilize some of this transportation for the delivery of 
gasoline and oil. However, except under the most abnormal 
conditions, the gasoline and oil supply platoon can handle 
this work. Troop and supply movements by motor transport 
are covered in detail in FM 100-10 and 25-10. 

b. Work sheet. — In order to facilitate the allocation of 
transportation to the various duties to be performed, some 
method of advance planning must be utilized. In some cases, 
the use of a control board, showing the various duties on 
which each truck is engaged, may be satisfactory. In long 
range planning, however, a work sheet similar to that shown 
in figure 15 may be used. This work sheet should simplify 
transport planning. Column 1 is for the mission of the 
truck or group of trucks. Column 2 is for the designation 
of the company furnishing the trucks. Column 3 is for the 
number of trucks and trailers required. Column 4, under the 
first step, is for the place that the trucks originate their 
mission and the time that they depart; for example, the 
trucks might originate their mission at the truck battalion 
bivouac. Column 5, under second step, is for the first stop- 
ping point, for example the class I supply railhead, together 
with its time of arrival and time of departure. The time 
of departure will be the time of arrival plus the time required 



101 



127 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 





Q. 


| Depart 




CO 


a> 

VI 


o 

'p 

■< 








1 1 

1 

Place 






a 


Depart 




M 


Arrive 








8 i 






Depart 




3d stej 


Arrive 






Place 








i 
R 






2d stei 










Si [ 




step 


' Depart 








' Place 






)er of 
5 and 
ers 


Trail-! 
crs i 




Numl; 
truck: 
trail 


Truck 






Truck] 
com- 
pany 






1 

Eh 





102 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 127 

to load or unload the truck or group of trucks, or the time 
the truck or group of trucks is required to wait at that point. 
The next column, under the third step, is for the next stopping 
place, for example the 1st Infantry kitchen bivouac, together 
with its time of arrival and departure. The method of com- 
puting the time of departure is the same in each case as 
for the second step. Columns 7 and 8 are repetitions. Each 
task should be listed separately and careful consideration 
should be given not only to the total number of trucks used 
during the period for which the work sheet is prepared, but 
aiso to the times of arrival and departure so that there will 
be no overlapping by the same truck or group of trucks. (See 
PM 25-10.) 

c. Wherever possible, each truck or group of trucks, after 
having completed one mission, should, if the distance is not 
too great, return to its bivouac before starting another task. 
This will provide better control by the quartermaster over his 
transportation and will prevent straggling. In some in- 
stances, however, it may be possible for the same truck or 
group of trucks to perform two or more tasks in sequence 
without returning to its bivouac. 

d. In solving any problems that might arise with reference 
to the disposition of the trucks in performing their missions 
for any given period, the following procedure may be followed: 

(1) List all of the tasks to be performed by the quarter- 
master regiment involving trucks during the period under 
consideration. 

(2) List all of the restrictions imposed by higher head- 
quarters that Will affect the use of the trucks; for example, 
prohibition against use of lights, time of opening or closing 
of installations, use of certain roads, etc. 

(3) Next, make a table showing, in terms of miles and time, 
with and without lights, all distances over which the trucks 
must travel. 

(4) Next, list all of the means that are available, together 
with their present loads. 

(5) Finally, through the use of the work sheet, list the 
means, together with their missions in the order of per- 
formance, the number of trucks required, time of departure 
from bivouac, time of arrival and departure at various supply 
points or other destinations, and times of return at quarter- 
master regimental bivouacs. 



103 



128-129 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

■ 128. Protection. — a. The protection of the quartermaster 
train is a responsibility of the quartermaster as regimental 
commander. The regiment itself is equipped with rifles but, 
if the situation warrants, the division quartermaster should 
supplement this with a request for additional protection 
from line troops. When the latter is done, the quarter- 
master regiment will travel as a convoy. The best protec- 
tion that the quartermaster regiment has is in the speed 
of its trucks. Additional protection can be furnished in con- 
cealment and dispersion and the establishment of road 
blocks which should be maintained by effective fire support. 

b. In bivouac. — Owing to the danger of hostile air at- 
tacks, it is necessary that close attention be given to the 
protection of the quartermaster regiment when in bivouac. 
Truck units should be bivouacked so as to conceal their 
vehicles from air observation. This concealment can be 
secured by placing the trucks in garages of the cities and 
towns in which the regiment is bivouacked or along those 
streets in a city that have a considerable number of shade 
trees, or along roads in the country, placing the vehicles 
under trees. Trucks should be concealed wherever possible, 
not only from overhead air observation, but from oblique 
observation as well. 

c. Additional protection can be secured by the proper use 
of camouflage and concealment by artificial covers, such as 
nets, branches of trees, and brush, by changing the pattern 
to resemble other objects compatible with the surroundings. 
(See FM 10-5.) 

■ 129. Camouflage. — a. In general, camouflage work is ex- 
ecuted by the troops of the activity or area being camou- 
flaged. Major camouflage projects are executed by general 
engineer troops. 

b. Use of camouflage. — (1) Natural cover should be sup- 
plemented by camouflage, which, when successful, not only 
conceals the camouflaged objects, but also disguises the fact 
that camouflage has been used. Insofar as practicable, the 
enemy must be kept in ignorance of any change in condi- 
tions, and work must be conducted so that it will not register 
in aerial photographs or be detected by ground observers 
from within the enemy lines. Photographs frequently dis- 
close things not visible to an observer's unaided eye. Or- 



104 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 129 

ganization commanders should, therefore, familiarize them- 
selves with the fundamentals of camouflage, prevent the 
making of trails, tracks, or other betraying marks in the 
vicinity of any work, and instruct their personnel in the 
use of natural and artificial cover. 

(2) Natural cover or camouflage prepared from natural 
material is usually more effective and economical than cover 
prepared from artificial material'. Full advantage should 
always be taken of such cover. When natural materials, 
such as leaves or branches, are used for camouflage, care 
should be taken to see that the wilting process does not 
destroy their effectiveness. 

(3) In general, it is useless to attempt to camouflage a 
position where work has already begun and where the enemy 
has had an opportunity to observe and register the site. 

(4) Even though it may be impossible to camouflage com- 
pletely a military structure, its visibility should be reduced 
by disguising its outline and eliminating highlights and re- 
flecting surfaces. 

(5) Subsidiary military works or auxiliary structures, such 
as temporary kitchens or latrines, must be located and camou- 
flaged carefully. 

(6) There should be close cooperation among the intelli- 
gence sections, air corps, and camouflage officers, in order that 
camouflage work may be properly executed. Whenever prac- 
ticable, the counter-intelligence plan should provide for aerial 
photographs of our own positions to insure the proper sur- 
veillance of the camouflaged effort. Camouflage officers 
should study these photographs with a view to correcting 
defective work. . 

(7) In order that they may perform their camouflage duties 
properly, responsible officers must acquire an intimate knowl- 
edge of the area in which they are to operate. They must 
learn the photographic values, textures, and character of the 
materials required, as well as the best means of adapting their 
work to the terrain. For detailed instructions concerning 
the use of camouflage see FM 5-15. (See also FM 10-5.) 

c. Camouflage discipline. — The proper concealment of troops 
from hostile aviation depends, in large measure, on the under- 
standing by all military personnel of what aerial photographs 
reveal and on the degree of camouflage discipline prevailing 
within the command. Trained troops utilize to the maximum 



105 



129-132 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

existing roads, trails, and paths before making new ones, and 
avoid making any that are unnecessary. 

d. All identification marks, such as divisional, regimental, 
or lower organizational designations, or insignia, on all classes 
of individual or organizational equipment should be effectively 
obliterated on orders of higher authority prior to entry into 
the combat zone. 

e. Use of cover. — Troops should make maximum use of the 
concealment afforded by terrain features, such as woods, 
covered routes, and villages. Whenever possible this should 
be supplemented by artificial concealment prepared from 
various materials such as grass, leaves, or burlap. For de- 
tailed instructions concerning individual use of concealment, 
see EM 21-45. 

/. Use of darkness. — (1) Night marches. — In general, troop 
movements in the combat zone should be made under cover 
of darkness and with restrictions on the use of lights. The 
different degrees of restrictions on the use of lights will be 
denned in orders by the theater commander. In some in- 
stances lights will not be permitted in the division area. In 
other instances lights will be permitted only in the area for- 
ward of the light line. This line will be the line forward of 
which lights will be prohibited. When troops are being con- 
centrated by night marches, daybreak should find them either 
in position or under cover in woods or villages. 

(2) Blackout. — If the enemy possesses a powerful air force, 
a blackout system must be employed in the theater of op- 
erations, the necessary instructions for which will be issued 
by the theater commander. 

■ 130. Graves Registration. — See FM 10-5." 

■ 131. Salvage. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 132. Traffic and Traffic Control. — a. General. — The per- 
sonnel of the quartermaster regiment should thoroughly 
understand traffic control and the rules and regulations 
affecting the flow of traffic. 

b. Circulation. — Circulation is the movement of traffic over 
routes in accordance with circulation plans which determine 
the direction of traffic and classes of traffic permitted over 
the various routes. 



106 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 132 

(1) Within each division area a circulation map will be 
prepared by the G-4 section in collaboration with the division 
engineer. This circulation map will show the direction of 
traffic on principal routes within the division area, together 
with the location of any traffic control stations that might 
be established. All personnel of the quartermaster truck 
units should be thoroughly familiar with the circulation of 
traffic within the division area and the area in which its 
trucks operate. As the quartermaster supply trucks operate 
between the army supply points and the division area, all 
personnel should be familiar with the circulation map of the 
army and corps as well as of the division. The circulation 
plan must be based upon the tactical situation, plan of 
supply and evacuation, and upon the road net within the 
area. 

\' (2) The backbone of the circulation map is the main 
supply road. This road may be a single road, operating two- 
way traffic from the rear to the front, or it may be two 
single roads, one as a road carrying inbound traffic and the 
other road carrying outbound traffic. The best road in the 
area should be devoted to the inbound traffic for the trucks 
traveling this road will normally be loaded. It is preferable 
to have an inbound and outbound road rather than a two-way 
road. The two-way road is objectionable because it permits 
cross traffic over the main supply road when making left 
hand turns. The direction of traffic over lateral routes, that 
is, roads generally paralleling the front, should be alternated 
and, if practicable, the lateral routes should be limited to 
one-way traffic. Division supply points, clearing stations, 
collecting points, etc., should be located on roads or spurs, 

. preferably off the main supply route. Turn-arounds should 
be provided over a one-way road, and passing points should 
be designated or traffic controlled by a block system, the 
vehicles operating in one direction being permitted to pass 
over a section of the road under control of military police. 

c. Traffic control. — Traffic control means the. control of 
the movement of persons, animals, and vehicles. Its object 
is to facilitate and expedite travel by preventing accidents, 
interference, and congestion. This can best be accomplished 
by enforcing traffic regulations as to speed, direction of 
travel, the prohibition of double banking, and the use of 
reserved or specially assigned routes. 



107 



132 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(1) Travel may be expedited by the proper issuance of 
instructions and information to transportation personnel by 
the military police. 

(2) Traffic control is necessary because of the heavy and 
continuous traffic to which the roads in the theater of 
operations are subjected. The movement of motor transport, 
horse-drawn vehicles, and foot troops must be coordinated 
in order to secure the best advantage of the available road 
capacity. As a corollary to this, the fewer the roads, the 
closer the supervision. The requirements for the combat 
troops should dominate the traffic control. 

(3) The principal measures for control are as follows: 

(a) Reserving certain routes for use of a particular type 
of transportation, such as for the exclusive use of animal- 
drawn transportation. 

(b) The allotment of specific hours to combat units or 
supplies, as for example, allotting the hours prior to mid- 
night for use of combat troops and the hours subsequent to 
midnight for the transportation of supplies. 

(c) Rigid enforcement of traffic rules and regulations 
by the military police. 

(<Z) The proper enforcement of march discipline, 
(e) The elimination of cross traffic. 

(4) There are two methods of traffic control: 

(a) Block system.. — This system may be employed during 
the movement of small bodies of troops or convoys not in the 
presence of the enemy and on routes that are not in constant 
use. The military police proceed in advance along the route 
to be followed by the troops and convoys. At crossings, 
detours, and other places, they take station far enough ahead 
to insure the march being made without interference by other 
traffic. When the head of the column passes the traffic con- 
trol station thus established, the military police proceed to the 
next unposted point, clearing the road as they go. This pro- 
cedure is carried out until the troops have reached their 
destination. 

(b) Point system. — The point system consists of one or 
more men stationed at important points to regulate traffic 
in much the same manner as civilian traffic policemen. 
Traffic controls consist of men mounted on horse, bicycle, 
or motorcycle, and are used to patrol constantly the roads 
between traffic control posts. This system may be used 



108 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 132-135 

on roads that are in constant use during movement of large 
bodies of troops. (See PM 10-5, 100-10, 25-10, and 29-5.) 

Section IV 

QUARTERMASTER BATTALION, INFANTRY DIVISION 
(TRIANGULAR) 

■ 133. General. — The quartermaster battalion (triangular 
division) is the unit assigned to provide quartermaster service 
for the infantry division (triangular). The battalion is or- 
ganized to provide personnel and units trained in the tech- 
nique of quartermaster administration, supply, and trans- 
portation. 

■ 134. Duties. — The duties required of the quartermaster 
battalion are identical with the duties prescribed in paragraph 
118. 

■ 135. Organization of Quartermaster Battalion. — a. In or- 
der to perform the quartermaster service incident to the 
infantry division, triangular, the battalion has been organized 
into a battalion headquarters and headquarters company, and 
one truck company. The battalion consists of 18 officers and 
302 enlisted men. (See T/O 10-15.) 

b. Battalion headquarters consists of a lieutenant colonel 
commanding, and seven other officers who form the nucleus 
for both the battalion headquarters and the office of the divi- 
sion quartermaster. The battalion commander acts in a dual 
capacity; he commands the battalion and is a member of the 
division special staff. Prescribed duties and responsibilities 
of the battalion commander are identical with those listed 
in paragraph 119b and c. 

c. The designation of the seven other officers in the bat- 
talion headquarters is as follows: 

(1) One major, executive, second in command and assistant 
division quartermaster. 

(2) One captain, division supply officer. 

(3) One captain, division transportation officer. 

(4) One first lieutenant, adjutant. 

(5) One lieutenant, assistant to the division supply officer. 

(6) One lieutenant, assistant transportation and gasoline 
supply. 



438624" — 42 8 109 



135 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(7) One second lieutenant, battalion supply officer. 

d. The headquarters company is divided into a company 
headquarters, a car platoon, a service platoon, and a main- 
tenance platoon. 

(1) The company headquarters performs the normal du- 
ties of housekeeping for the battalion headquarters and for 
the company. These duties include clerical work, supply, 
and messing for the company. 

(2) The car platoon furnishes the passenger transporta- 
tion for division headquarters. It operates five 5-passenger 
automobiles, and eight Vi-ton command and reconnaissance 
trucks. 

(3) The service platoon, consisting of two sections, fur- 
nishes labor for the division and is the nucleus for any labor 
pool that may be organized within the division. Its function 
is to load and unload supplies at various divisional supply 
points and to perform such other labor as might be assigned 
to it by competent authority. It acts in a manner similar 
to the service company, quartermaster regiment, infantry 
division, square. The platoon is commanded by a second 
lieutenant. 

(4) The maintenance platoon is divided into a platoon 
headquarters, two repair sections, one wrecker section, and 
one supply section. 

(a) Platoon headquarters, consisting of one officer, and 
four enlisted men, performs the normal duties of a platoon 
headquarters. 

(b) The repair sections maintain and operate a mobile 
maintenance shop. 

(c) The wrecker section provides the equipment and per- 
sonnel to provide wrecker service for the division. It is 
normally located with the maintenance shop. 

((f) The supply section, under the supervision of a second 
lieutenant, provides the personnel for operating the motor, 
transport supply service. This can best be operated in con- 
junction with the maintenance shop. 

(e) The platoon should be bivouacked in the vicinity of 
the third echelon maintenance shop. 

e. The truck company consists of a company headquarters 
and two platoons, - under the command of a captain. 



110 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 135-136 

(1) The company headquarters provides personnel and 
equipment for company housekeeping, including clerical work, 
supply, and messing. 

(2) The platoons furnish the truck and trailer transporta- 
tion for the division. The company provides either forty 
2%-ton cargo trucks or forty %- to 1-ton 2-wheeled cargo 
trailers for general cargo and troop-hauling purposes within 
the division. (See PM 10-5.) 

■ 136. Organization of Office of Division Quartermaster. — 
a. A suggested type organization of the office of the division 
quartermaster and headquarters, quartermaster regiment, 
square division, is given in figure 11. The same doctrine, 
duties, and fundamentals are applicable to the operation 
of the division quartermaster's office, triangular division, as 
outlined in paragraphs 120 and 121 for the square division. 
The main difference in the organization of the two offices is 
in the rank, numbers, and detailed assignment of personnel. 
It should be noted that this is only a guide, and that T/O 
10-16 essentially governs. (See PM 10-5.) 

(1) The administrative division may be headed by the bat- 
talion adjutant. 

(2) The supply division is headed by a captain who is desig- 
nated as the quartermaster supply officer. A first lieutenant 
assists him in operating the supply division. One of the 
lieutenants in the transportation division also assists the 
quartermaster supply officer in matters pertaining to class III 
supplies. 

(3) The transportation division is headed by a captain, 
who is designated as the transportation officer. He is assisted 
by a first lieutenant of the battalion headquarters, by the 
lieutenant commanding the maintenance platoon of the head- 
quarters company, who performs the duties of the division 
maintenance officer, and, if necessary or desirable, by the 
commander of the truck company, who may be the division 
motor officer. 

(4) Two officers are assigned to the battalion headquarters. 
One is the adjutant, who also performs the duties of S-2 and 
S-3; the other is the battalion supply officer, S-4. 

b. The assignment of personnel to various duties in the 
office of the division quartermaster is dependent on the per- 
sonnel available in the battalion, the idiosyncrasies of the 



111 



136-138 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



division quartermaster, and on the organization of the division 
general and special staff. The allocation of enlisted personnel 
to battalion headquarters and office of the division quarter- 
master is based upon the organization adopted by the division 
quartermaster. 

■ 137. Distribution of Supply. — a. Class I supply. — In gen- 
eral, all the methods outlined in section III for the procure- 
ment and distribution of class I supply can be applied to 
the triangular division. The triangular division may find it 
necessary to resort to railhead distribution more frequently 
than the square division. This is due in part to the limited 
amount of transportation available within' the quartermaster 
battalion. Nevertheless, the primary function of the divi- 
sion quartermaster is still that of procurement and distribu- 
tion of supplies, and recommendations and supervision by the 
quartermaster service are still necessary. A reserve of class 
I supply is carried by the truck company of the quartermaster 
battalion whenever the division or higher commander pre- 
scribes. If .the situation precludes the establishment of a 
reserve within the division, a railhead reserve of at least 1 
day's class I supply should be prescribed. (See FM 100-10.) 

b. Class III supply. — The methods for procuring and dis- 
tributing gasoline and oil in the triangular division are sim- 
ilar to those laid down in paragraph 124. Whenever gasoline 
and oil are distributed by the quartermaster service in the 
triangular division the distribution will be effected under the 
supervision of the first lieutenant, assistant to the transpor- 
tation officer, using labor secured from the service platoon 
of the headquarters and headquarters company, and transpor- 
tation secured from the truck company. (See FM 100-10.) 

c. Class II and class IV supply. — Class II and class IV supply 
are handled in the triangular division in the same manner 
as that laid down in paragraph 125. (See FM 100-10.) 

■ 138. Transport. — Owing to the limited amount of trans- 
portation available in the quartermaster battalion and the 
limited amount of other truck transport available within the 
division, all transportation in the division, except prime mov- 
ers and weapon carriers, should be utilized as a pool in order 
to obtain the maximum flexibility and hauling capacity. 
Motor vehicles from the quartermaster battalion or division 



112 



138-139 QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 

pool are frequently attached to units for specific periods when 
the task exceeds the capacity of organic unit transportation. 
(See PM 100-10 and 25-10.) 

■ 139. Motor Maintenance. — a. The third echelon mainte- 
nance shop operated by the repair section of the mainte- 
nance platoon, headquarters company, should be located 
on the main supply route between the division railheads and 
the forward area of the division. Towns with existing repair 
shops furnish excellent locations for third echelon mainte- 
nance shops. If such locations are not available, the field 
shop should be set up in a convenient location. 

b. Units perform all first and second echelon maintenance 
and the maximum amount possible of third echelon main- 
tenance. Spare parts are obtained from the supply section 
of the maintenance platoon of headquarters company, quar- 
termaster battalion. 

c. Vehicles which cannot be repaired promptly by the unit 
are turned over to the division quartermaster service or are 
collected by the wrecker section of the maintenance platoon. 
Pending repair by the third echelon shop, or replacement 
from army, replacement of vehicles needed by units may be 
temporarily supplied from the truck company, quartermaster 
battalion. (See PM 10-5 and 25-10.) 



113 



140-143 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



CHAPTER 3 



CAVALRY AND ARMORED DIVISIONS 



Seqtion I. Cavalry division (horse) 
II. Armored division 



Paragraphs 
140-150 
151-158 



Section I 



CAVALRY DIVISION (HORSE) 



■ 140. General. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 141. Organization of Quartermaster Squadron. — See T/O 
10-115 and 10-116. 

■ 142. Organization of Division Quartermaster's Office. — 
The organization of the division quartermaster's office is 
similar to that outlined for the infantry division, square, 
given in paragraph 120. The only difference is the grade 
of the officers assigned to the various divisions. 

■ 143. Class I Supplies. — a. The fundamentals governing 
quartermaster operations in the Infantry division, square, 
given in section HI, chapter 6, are applicable to the Cavalry 
division and are to be employed whenever practicable. How- 
ever, modifications are frequently necessary. The wide 
fronts over which Cavalry may operate, its probable dis- 
tance from suitable rail facilities, and the difficulty of dis- 
patching and guarding convoys may necessitate intermittent 
supply at 2- or 3-day intervals, in which case Cavalry sub- 
sists on its reserve supplies or resorts to local procurement. 
When intermittent supply is necessary, arrangement is to 
be made for the replenishment of the supplies consumed 
during the interval missed. Railheads often are far to the 
rear, and usually unit distribution of class I supplies is found 
more suitable. In many instances, it is found feasible for 
the quartermaster to issue class I supplies, from such re- 
serve as may be carried in the quartermaster squadron, prior 
to the arrival of the daily train. The supplies issued from 
the reserve are to be replaced as soon as practicable after 
the arrival of the daily train. (See FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 



114 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 14S 

b. In many situations Cavalry may find itself operating 
where rail facilities are not available. Under such circum- 
stances it is necessary for the army to forward supplies by 
motor transport to truckheads, which can serve the Cavalry 
division. An alternative method is to attach trucks to the 
division from the motor transport service in order to pro- 
vide a reserve of class I supplies in addition to those nor- 
mally carried by the division. The amount of transporta- 
tion to be attached will depend on the number of days of 
supply prescribed by the division commander or higher head- 
quarters. These trucks may, in some instances, dump their 
initial loads at class I supply dumps, the dumps so established 
becoming supply points of various classes for the division or 
regiment. The motor transport trucks then haul between 
the motor supply points and the dump. (See FM 10-5 and 
100-10.) 

c. In some rare situations, it may be necessary for the 
division to secure its supplies through the medium of air 
transportation; that is, when certain cavalry units are an 
extreme distance from the base, or where the presence of 
hostile troops prevents the use of rail or motor transport. 
(See FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

d. Under certain conditions it may be necessary for the 
division to resort to local procurement for all types of sup- 
plies. The responsibility for local procurement rests upon 
the division quartermaster. He must take steps to accom- 
plish the collection and distribution of supplies without in- 
terfering with or delaying the tactical mission of the com- 
bat troops. Before entering a territory where the command 
may have to live off the country, the division quartermaster 
should obtain all available information concerning its re- 
sources. Upon entering the territory, systematic inspections 
of all parts of the locality should be made in order to verify 
previous reports and to gain additional information. Plans 
and preparations are made for the collection and distribu- 
tion of supplies to be purchased or requisitioned. Organiza- 
tions, unless specifically authorized to do so, are not per- 
mitted to seize supplies for their own use. When practicable, 
all supplies are collected at specific points where they are 
taken over by the quartermaster and issued to the command 
in the usual manner. The guiding factor is that collection oj 
supplies should cause the minimum of interference with the 



115 



143 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



tactical mission of the command. To simplify the exploita- 
tion of the resources of a territory, advantage should be 
taken of assistance from local authorities. These authori- 
ties ordinarily know the amount of supplies available within 
their communities and the quantities that can be procured. 
In friendly territory local transportation and labor may be 
hired or impressed. In either case, local transportation and 
labor are more difficult to handle than military and are to 
to be employed only when necessary. Their most frequent 
use is in the collection of supplies to convenient points where 
such supplies can be picked up by organic transport. (See 
FM 10-5.) 

e. A Cavalry command authorized and required to subsist 
itself upon supplies obtained through local sources must have 
a carefully considered plan of supply. This plan should in- 
clude decisions on the following points: 

(1) System of getting information on the resources of 
the country. 

(2) Whether supplies are to be levied, requisitioned, or 
purchased. 

(3) Whether supplies are to be collected by details from 
the division or delivered at central locations by the 
inhabitants. 

(4) Best method of using the trains. 

(5) Whether or not to use impressed transportation. 

(6) Whether to have the area passed through divided into 
sectors for supply of separate units, or to have the whole 
command supplied from one area. 

In making initial supply plans, it is necessary to consider 
the attitude of the inhabitants of the occupied area. If 
the inhabitants are passively disposed, the task of procuring 
the local supplies is made easier. If the inhabitants are hos- 
tile, the work of collecting supplies is most difficult. In the 
latter case, attempts may be made to carry off, conceal, or 
destroy the resources so as to prevent the troops from deriv- 
ing benefit therefrom. Cash payments generally bring about 
the best results in local procurement. 

/. Probably the most efficient method of obtaining first- 
hand information concerning the resources of an area im- 
mediately available for use by troops is to send out, with 
advance guards and reconnaissance detachments, agents 
of the supply services. These agents are assigned certain 



116 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 143 

areas to cover and they make their reports direct to the 
headquarters of the force. These reports, together with 
those of organization supply officers, patrols, and reconnais- 
sance troops, give the location, quantity, and nature of 
supplies found, information of the roads, local transporta- 
tion available, feasibility of securing supplies locally, and 
the availability of local labor. Every officer in charge of a 
reconnaissance detachment or patrol is, temporarily, a sup- 
ply agent for his commanding officer insofar as obtaining 
this information is concerned. 

g. Supplies obtained in friendly territory are ordinarily 
paid for by cash. A finance officer or his agent accompanies 
the troops to make the necessary payments. 

h. In hostile territory, there are two methods of collect- 
ing supplies — 

(1) Direct purchase or requisition by subordinate units. — 
This system permits each unit to obtain locally all available 
supplies for its own use. It is most often used by smaller 
units. Requisitions are to be resorted to only when author- 
ized by the commander of the theater of operations. They 
are enforced by detachments commanded by commissioned 
officers. 

(2) Systematic collection under division control. — (a) By 
this method, which is the more efficient system for a large 
force, supplies are located, obtained, collected, and there- 
after distributed and issued through the regular supply 
channels. 

(b) The plan for the collection of supplies is influenced 
by the following factors: 

1. Reconnaissance missions of troops accompanied by 

supply agents. 

2. Reports of supply agents received at the headquar- 

ters of the unit. 

3. Sectors to be assigned subordinate units, based on 

reported locations of supplies. 

4. Organic and impressed transportation to be used. 

5. Time supplies are to be delivered to collection 

points. 

(c) The actual collection of supplies is, as far as possible, 
accomplished by service troops. Sometimes, however, a show 
of force is necessary, and combat troops may be detailed for 



117 



143 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



this purpose. Collection may be made by the combat organ- 
izations themselves. 

(d) If local transport is to be employed, it is organized 
and placed under an officer of appropriate rank and experi- 
ence. A small detachment of combat troops may be as- 
signed to insure order in the train column. 

(e) Probably the best method of handling this difficult 
supply problem is to put the burden of actually serving the 
Cavalry upon the civil population. Full resort to officials is 
to be made by agents collecting information of supplies. 
Local authorities ordinarily know the quantity of supplies 
in the locality and the amount that can be spared with 
least hardship to the inhabitants. Working through local 
authorities, it may be possible to have supplies collected and 
delivered at specified points by civilian inhabitants. This 
method has the disadvantage of usually taking more time 
than the collection of supplies by agencies of the command. 

i. Gasoline and oil requirements for the Cavalry division 
are more difficult to supply than those of an Infantry divi- 
sion, because the distance traveled by a Cavalry division 
and the distance the division must travel to its supply points 
are usually much greater. All of this tends to increase the 
difficulty of supplying a Cavalry division with sufficient gaso- 
line and oil. 

j. Under normal conditions the army establishes gasoline 
filling stations on routes between the army supply points and 
the area in which the division is operating in addition to 
those stations operated at the supply points. Many of the 
vehicles, however, do not return to supply points, but con- 
tinue to operate in the forward area. Special provisions for 
gasoline and oil for the vehicles operating in the forward 
area must be made. This can be accomplished when deliv- 
ering gasoline and oil at gasoline and oil railheads or by for- 
warding gasoline and oil by motor transport. Distribution 
to the using troops may then be made by establishing mobile 
filling stations or gasoline and oil distribution points. (See 
FM 10-5.) 

fc. Whenever possible, local resources are to be exploited 
for gasoline and oil. Gasoline and oil requirements increase 
the difficulty of completely supplying a Cavalry division from 
local resources, especially in hostile territory. These com- 
modities are easily destroyed. Except by surprise action. 



118 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 143-146 

procurement in hostile territory generally is impossible. In 
friendly territory, procurement in sufficient quantity is de- 
pendent upon the locality. 

■ 144. Forage. — A full supply of forage is even more im- 
portant to Cavalry than a full supply of rations. Horses 
quickly become unserviceable if deprived of adequate forage. 
There is insufficient transportation in the Cavalry division 
to carry hay in addition to other loads. If hay is not other- 
wise available, the division quartermaster must be constantly 
on the lookout for some suitable substitute. Other grasses 
and nearly all growing crops may help to take the place of 
hay. Frequently the division quartermaster must also find 
substitutes for oats, such as corn, barley, wheat, rye, peas, 
beans, rice, or similar grains. Grain, however, due to its 
concentrated food value, may be carried in such division 
reserve as may be prescribed. If hay cannot be shipped in 
by the daily train or by a truck column operating to the 
rear, local procurement may be resorted to. The corollary to 
this is that, wherever possible, local procurement is made 
in order to avoid the transportation of such bulky supplies 
over long distances. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 145. Water. — Water is another important item of supply 
for the Cavalry, because of the large requirements for its men, 
animals, and motors. Animals, in particular, need not only 
large quantities of water, but they must have it at frequent 
intervals in order to maintain their efficiency. In some 
theaters these large requirements cannot always be obtained 
locally, in which event water must be transported to the area 
by rail, motor, or pipe line and distribution made to the units 
at water-distributing points. Water for the men and kitchens 
can usually be distributed in 5- or 10-gallon containers. This 
method of distribution is identical with that employed in the 
Infantry division. (See FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

■ 146. Class II and Class IV Supplies, Including Remounts. — 
In a rapidly moving situation there is little opportunity to 
secure quartermaster class II and class IV supplies and re- 
mounts from the rear. In such cases, when the replenish- 
ment of these supplies or the replacement of remounts is 
imperative, the division quartermaster must make every effort 
to secure the supplies from the army supply points or resort 



119 



146-150 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

to local procurement. Where class I supplies are being 
shipped to the Cavalry division through a railhead, it may 
be practicable periodically to attach additional cars of other 
quartermaster supplies, such as horseshoes, clothing, saddle 
equipment, motor parts, and other urgently needed replace- 
ment, to the daily train. The transportation available for 
the handling of these supplies is limited and the requisitioning 
of such is to be restricted. Ammunition, ordnance, and engi- 
neer supplies also may be shipped to the Cavalry division 
railhead when conditions permit and when the Cavalry divi- 
sion is operating at considerable distance from the army 
depots. The method of procuring these supplies follows that 
outlined in paragraph 118, PM 10-5. 

■ 147. Miscellaneous. — Graves registration and mortuary 
matters are handled in a manner similar to that given in par- 
agraph 118, PM 10-5. The major difference between a Cav- 
alry division and an Infantry division is that Cavalry fre- 
quently operates over wide fronts and in rapidly moving sit- 
uations and, therefore, may require a greater number of 
cemeteries. Every effort is made by the quartermaster to 
restrict the number of cemeteries and individual graves, and 
special attention is given to their recording. 

■ 148. Salvage. — The collection of salvage is conducted in a 
manner similar to that given in paragraph 118, FM 10-5. The 
division quartermaster, however, will find collecting salvage 
for the Cavalry division more difficult than collecting it for 
the Infantry division, owing to the rapidity with which 
Cavalry moves. 

■ 149. Quartering. — Quartering is handled in a manner 
similar to that given in paragraph 118, FM 10-5. 

■ 150. Protection. — o. The fundamentals of protection and 
the method employed are given in paragraph 128. In many 
situations, however, it is necessary for the quartermaster 
regiment to travel under convoy. This is particularly true 
when operating in hostile territory and where there is con- 
stant danger of attack by hostile Cavalry or mechanized 
forces. Constant reconnaissance, observation, and other se- 
curity measures are to be adopted whenever the quarter 7 
master regiment is operating between the Cavalry area and 
its supply points. 

120 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 150-152 

b. Owing to the distance over which Cavalry may operate, 
it is frequently necessary for the attachment of additional 
quartermaster units. The types and number of these units 
that are to be attached is dependent upon the circumstances. 
This involves the width of the front, the distance the division 
is operating from supply points, availability of supplies, avail- 
ability of good motor roads, the danger of mechanized motor 
and air attacks, and the availability of quartermaster mech- 
anized units. 

c. In all other respects, the division quartermaster and the 
quartermaster units of the Cavalry division operate and per- 
form their duties in a manner similar to that outlined in 
paragraphs 122 to 132 inclusive. (See FM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

Section II 

ARMORED DIVISION 

■ 151. Quartermaster Service. — a. Quartermaster service in 
the armored division is provided by a quartermaster bat- 
talion (T/O 10-35). An armored force is a combined force 
comprising reconnaissance, assault, and supporting troops of 
more than one arm or service, transported in wheeled or 
tracklaying type motor vehicles, the bulk of which are 
provided either with partial or complete armor. 

b. Operations of the quartermaster service in the armored 
division are analogous to those in the Cavalry division and the 
Infantry division (triangular) with such modifications as 
are necessary to meet the needs peculiar to mechanized and 
motorized units. The distances that an armored division is, 
capable of covering, the speed of its operations, and the con- 
sequent wear on transportation aggravating the supply of 
repair parts and supplies, ,and the absolute dependence of 
the division on an adequate supply of motor fuels and lu- 
bricants will develop special difficulties which the division 
quartermaster must be prepared to overcome. (See PM 
100-10.) 

■ 152. Quartermaster Battalion — Organization. — a. The 
quartermaster battalion, armored division, consists of a bat- 
talion headquarters and headquarters company, a light 
maintenance company, and a truck company. 



121 



152-154 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

b. Battalion headquarters furnishes the officer and enlisted 
personnel for the operation of battalion headquarters and 
the office of the division quartermaster. 

c. The headquarters company is organized with a company 
headquarters, a service platoon, a communication platoon and 
a division supply section. 

(1) The company headquarters performs the normal duties 
of a company headquarters. 

(2) The service platoon provides labor for handling sup- 
plies and forms the nucleus of the division labor pool. 

(3) The division supply section embraces the purchasing 
and contracting officer, the class I supply officer, an 
ammunition-handling officer, and a transportation officer. 

d. The truck company, organized according to T/O 10-57 
is equipped with 48 trucks, 2%-ton, and 40 trailers, 1-ton (160 
truck tons) available for general cargo transportation includ- 
ing the transportation of such reserves as may be prescribed. 

e. The light maintenance company, organized according to 
T/O 10-27 provides third echelon motor maintenance for the 
division transportation whose maintenance is a responsibility 
of the Quartermaster Corps. (See AR 850-15.) 

■ 153. Office of Division Quartermaster. — No definite office 
organization is prescribed. An organization similar to that 
recommended for the quartermaster battalion, triangular 
Infantry division, (par. 137, and fig. 11), modified to conform 
to the personnel available, will meet requirements from a 
functional standpoint. (See also T/O 10-36, and chart on 
p. 121, EM 10-5.) 

■ 154. Reserve Supplies. — a. Supply of the armored division 
is based on the fundamental that each major unit has suffi- 
cient capacity to enable the unit to be self-sufficient for short 
periods. Normally each company will carry one type A or B 
ration in the unit kitchen, each vehicle will carry two type 
C rations for each individual assigned to the vehicle, and 
the quartermaster will transport one type B ration for all 
troops of the division. In all, four rations are available. 

&. Reserves of gasoline and oil are prescribed for each unit 
so as to give the division freedom of action within a 300-mile 
radius. Each vehicle will carry in its tanks and in containers 
sufficient fuel for 150 miles of operation ; each unit will carry 



122 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 154-157 

on its transportation sufficient fuel for an additional 150 miles 
of operation for all vehicles. (See FM 100-10.) 

c. In actual operations a reserve of ammunition is carried 
both in the combat units and in the division trains. Nor- 
mally 1 day of fire of small arms ammunition is carried on the 
person or the vehicle and another day of fire on the regimental 
or unit transportation; artillery ammunition is available on 
the basis of 1 day of fire for each weapon carried in transpor- 
tation of the unit. Within the limits of the capacity of trans- 
portation available in the quartermaster battalion a reserve of 
ammunition may be carried by that battalion. When the 
mission assigned requires the division to carry within the 
division a reserve of ammunition in excess of the transporta- 
tion available, additional transportation must be assigned by 
higher authority. (See also par. 159.) 

■ 155. Class I and Class III Supply. — The conventional meth- 
ods of supply will be employed whenever the tactical and sup- 
ply situation makes such methods practicable. During pe- 
riods where continuous supply is not possible, procurement 
from local resources must be resorted to and such resources 
exploited to the utmost. Foresight and timely preparations 
incorporated into a flexible plan will enable an alert division 
quartermaster to adapt expedients to meet all conceivable 
contingencies. (See also par. 159.) 

■ 156. Class II and Class IV Supply. — See paragraph 118, 
FM 10-5. 

■ 157. Transportation. — a. Transportation available within 
the quartermaster battalion is limited; therefore, distribution 
of supplies to divisional units will normally be accomplished 
by transportation of the unit. 

b. When elements of the division are detached on inde- 
pendent missions, sufficient transportation should be attached 
to such elements to insure continuity of supplies for the execu- 
tion of the mission. The limitations to the distance of stra- 
tegical operation of supply are based on the following 
considerations : 

(1) The cargo capacity of company and regimental 
vehicles. 

(2) The mobility of supply trains or similar attached 
vehicles, which is governed by the capabilities of vehicles 



123 



157-158 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



and personnel. These capabilities cannot be exceeded for any 
considerable period of time with impunity. 

(3) The location of railheads, truckheads, or other similar 
establishments where replenishment of supplies is received. 
These establishments should be located so that trains, in 
maintaining the continuous flow of supplies, will not be re- 
quired to exceed a normal marching distance each day. At 
times this may necessitate a daily forward displacement of 
such establishments equal to the daily advance of the combat 
elements of the division. (See PM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

■ 158. Logistical Considerations. — a. Where prolonged oper- 
ations of armored divisions and corps of GHQ tank units are 
contemplated, adequate arrangements must be made by the 
higher headquarters to insure timely replenishment of sup- 
plies required by the armored units. Where the armored 
units are required to operate at great distances from their 
base of supplies, when continuity of supply is interrupted by 
enemy action, and in other emergency situations delivery 
of urgent supplies may be made by air. 

£>. As a general guide to the logistical capabilities of armored 
divisions, the following, expressed in terms of days of supply, 
are the maximum supplies carried organically: 

(1) Class I: 3 days (including one "D" ration) in units, plus 
1 day in quartermaster battalion. 

(2) Ammunition: 2 days' supply of small arms, 37-mm, 
60-mm mortar; 1 day's supply 81-mm mortar, 105-mm how- 
itzer, and 75-mm antitank guns. 

(3) Gasoline and oil: 2 days' supply. 

In addition, the quartermaster battalion of the armored divi- 
sion can carry 120 tons of ammunition or gasoline and oil 
(over and above the normal division reserve of 1 day's supply 
of class I — 40 tons) . 

c. The following are the approximate tonnages of 1 day's 
supply of the indicated items for an armored division : 



Tons 



Ammunition, all classes 

Gasoline and oil (assumed average operating dis 



600 



tance, 100 miles) 
Class I 



220 
40 



124 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 159-160 



CHAPTER 4 
ARMY CORPS 



Section I. Corps as part of army. 
II. Independent corps 



Paragraphs 

.-_ 159-172 
.__ 173-176 



Section I 
CORPS AS PART OP ARMY 

■ 159. General. — a. The normal chain of supply, evacuation, 
and maintenance is direct between this independent corps and 
the divisions. The corps, as part of an army, has few admin- 
istrative responsibilities except for corps troops. The corps is 
ordinarily concerned with the supply of the divisions only to 
the extent of the assurance that administrative arrangements 
are functioning satisfactorily. 

b. The corps is responsible for the allocation to divisions as 
well as to corps troops of such quartermaster supplies and 
credits as may be allocated to it by higher authority. The 
corps quartermaster is responsible lor the supply of corps 
troops and the command and supervision of all corps quarter- 
master activities. The corps, therefore, is not a link in the 
chain of supply when acting as part of an army. The corps 
is concerned with the supply of the divisions only to the extent 
of being assured that the supply is satisfactory. The trains 
of the corps quartermaster normally carry no reserve supplies 
for its divisions, but may carry reserve supplies for corps 
troops. The quantity of reserves carried must of necessity 
be decided upon by the corps commander or higher authority. 
(See PM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

■ 160. Composition. — a. The corps quartermaster service 
consists of the quartermaster section, headquarters army 
corps and such attachments as may be ordeiud from general 
headquarters. The quartermaster section, headquarters, army 
corps, is composed of five officers and nine enlisted men and 
furnishes the nucleus for operating the corps quartermaster 
service. The normal attachments of the quartermaster units 
consist of two truck companies, one light maintenance com- 



438624° — 42 9 125 



160-161 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

pany, one quartermaster gasoline supply company, and one 
quartermaster service company (a total of 15 officers and 746 
enlisted men) . If the situation demands, additional quarter- 
master units may be attached to the corps. These units pro- 
vide supply, labor, and transportation service to the corps 
troops and are available for reattachments to the combat 
divisions of the corps. (See PM 10-5.) 

b. Heading the corps quartermaster service is the corps 
quartermaster, who is a member of the corps special staff, and 
commands the corps quartermaster service. As a special staff 
officer, he makes such technical inspections as may be directed 
by the corps commander. He may call on division quarter- 
masters and supply officers of corps troop units for such 
technical reports as may be necessary in supervising quarter- 
master activities with which corps headquarters is charged. 
As commander of the corps quartermaster service, he com- 
mands all quartermaster units assigned or attached to the 
corps. 

■ 161. Headquarters Corps Quartermaster Service. — a. The 
nucleus of the corps quartermaster service is provided by the 
quartermaster section, headquarters army corps, which con- 
sists of five officers and nine enlisted men. (See T/O 100-1.) 
Other officers and men are detailed from attached quarter- 
master units as are required. 

b. The office of the corps quartermaster is the headquarters 
for the corps quartermaster service and is located at the rear 
echelon corps headquarters. The office of the corps quarter- 
master supervises and directs all quartermaster activities 
pertaining to the corps. The executive officer assists the 
quartermaster in the performance of his special staff func- 
tions and is second in command and executive of the corps 
quartermaster service. 

c. The organization of the corps quartermaster's office 
may follow the same general lines as laid down in para- 
graph 120 and performs the same duties as outlined in 
paragraph 121. The administrative section is headed by a 
first lieutenant, who also acts as adjutant for the corps quar- 
termaster service. The executive officer may head the sup- 
ply division with one captain as assistant. The transporta- 
tion division may be headed by a major, probably assisted 
by a captain or lieutenant detailed from an attached quar- 
termaster unit. 

126 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 162 

■ 162. Corps Quartermaster Service. — a. Truck companies. — 
The two truck companies provide motor transportation for 
hauling supplies, including such reserves as may be pre- 
scribed by the corps commander, for the movement of 
troops, and a nucleus for the motor pool. 

b. Quartermaster light maintenance company. — (1) The 
quartermaster light maintenance company provides person- 
nel for the transportation of the corps quartermaster's office, 
motor inspection for corps troops and divisions, motor sup- 
plies (except gasoline and oil) for corps troops, and third 
echelon motor maintenance for quartermaster motor ve- 
hicles for corps troops. 

(2) The commander of the light maintenance company is 
corps motor maintenance officer and assistant to the corps 
motor officer. He is adviser to the corps quartermaster on 
matters pertaining to motor maintenance for corps troops 
and is responsible to him for the efficient functioning of mo- 
tor supply, administration, inspection, and third echelon 
motor maintenance of all quartermaster motor vehicles of 
the corps troops. 

(3) This unit is capable of operating two mobile repair 
shops, each shop being capable of providing third echelon mo- 
tor maintenance for 750 vehicles, all classes. The organization 
of the company into two platoons, each operating one mobile 
repair shop, permits echelonment of shops. This permits the 
company to keep abreast of repair work in case of forward, 
lateral, or retrograde movement of troops being served. (See 
T/O 10-27.) 

c. Gasoline supply company. — A gasoline supply company 
provides the facilities for supplying gasoline and oil for 
corps troops. The company has a trip-day capacity of 15,- 
700 gallons of gasoline and 300 gallons of oil, in 10-gallon 
cans, plus small amounts of gear lubricants and grease. The 
company is equipped with 26 cargo trucks, 2 1 / 2 -ton, and 22 
trailers, 1-ton. (See T/O 10-77.) 

d. Service company. — The service company consists of a 
company headquarters and two platoons. This company 
furnishes the nucleus for the corps general labor pool, pro- 
viding men for the operation of quartermaster utilities, han- 
dling of such corps reserves as may be loaded on the truck 
battalion, and the handling of quartermaster supplies and 



127 



162-164 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



ammunition as directed. It normally moves on the trucks 
of the truck battalion (companies). 

(1) The company headquarters administers the mess 
and supplies, and supervises the labor activities of the com- 
pany as a whole. 

(2) The two platoons each consist of a lieutenant and 
101 enlisted men, of whom 80 are laborers. (See T/O 10-67.) 

e. Car platoon. — While not specified as a normal part of 
the corps quartermaster service, a platoon of the car com- 
pany (with 6 passenger cars and 7 motorcycles, T/O 10-87) 
may be attached to provide transportation for corps head- 
quarters and motorcycle messenger service for the corps 
message center. In such case this platoon probably will 
also operate the headquarters garage. 

■ 163. General Employment of Corps Quartermaster Serv- 
ice. — a. Elements of the corps quartermaster service are 
employed as directed by the corps commander. 

b. Specific missions of the corps quartermaster service in 
a given situation are set forth in the corps administrative 
plan, approved by the corps commander. These missions 
are carried out pursuant to administrative instructions is- 
sued through G-4. Service operations involved are pre- 
scribed by the corps quartermaster. 

c. The corps quartermaster service is designed primarily 
to take care of corps troops and in this respect functions 
similarly to the quartermaster regiment of an Infantry 
division. 

■ 164. Supply. — A. Class I supplies. — (1) The corps quar- 
termaster prepares and dispatches the daily telegram for 
class I supplies for corps troops to the army quartermaster. 
As in the case of a division, the basis of this message- is the 
strength report of corps troop units received from the corps 
adjutant general. A copy of the daily telegram is sent to 
corps G-4 immediately upon its dispatch. 

(2) Supplies are received and distributed by the corps 
quartermaster in a manner similar to that employed by the 
division quartermaster for the infantry regiment (square) . 
On arrival at the class I supply railhead, the corps quarter- 
master supply officer receives the day's requirements from 
the railhead officer, loads, usually by unit, on vehicles of the 
truck battalion, and makes delivery to unit distributing 



128 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 164 

points of corps troop unitf When this is impracticable, 
railhead distribution may be resorted to. 

b. Gasoline and oil supply. — The requirements for gaso- 
line and oil supply may be Incorporated in the daily tele- 
gram. The quantities requisitioned are based upon daily 
reports submitted by unit supply officers of corps troops. 
All vehicles drawing supplies at army establishments should 
secure the gasoline and oil at these points in order that they 
may return to the area with their vehicles nearly filled. The 
army will have established other gasoline supply points 
throughout the area. These may be used by vehicles pass- 
ing between the army area and the front lines for resupply 
of gasoline. In addition to this, the corps quartermaster is 
to provide gasoline and oil in a manner similar to that given 
in paragraph 124. There is available for this purpose the 
gasoline supply company. When the situation demands it, 
sections of this company may be attached to subordinate 
divisions in order to supplement their supply facilities. For 
example, when one division of the corps is making a wide 
envelopment and the distance between supply points and 
the using troops is great, it may be necessary to attach one 
or more sections of the gasoline supply platoon to that divi- 
sion. Special equipment should be provided by the railhead 
officer to facilitate unloading of tank cars. Distribution of 
gasoline and oil is a continuous process and tank trucks and 
containers of the gasoline supply company are to be kept 
filled at all times. The corps commander prescribes the 
quantities of gasoline and oil to be carried as a reserve for 
the corps. Mobile filling stations are habitually established 
at both echelons of corps headquarters, at the bivouac of the 
truck battalions, and at other convenient points for the serv- 
ice of separate vehicles. 

c. Other quartermaster supplies. — After approval by their 
commanders, supply officers of corps troop units submit req- 
uisitions for other quartermaster supplies direct to the corps 
quartermaster. If the corps has a credit in the army depot, 
the corps quartermaster draws against this credit and ar- 
ranges for issue to requiring units of corps troops. If the 
corps has no credit, the quartermaster prepares a consolidated 
requisition, secures approval of the corps commander, and 
presents it to the army quartermaster for the necessary ad- 



129 



164-165 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAI, 



ministrative action. Supplies are drawn at the time and place 
designated by the army quartermaster and issued to corps 
troop units as arranged by the corps quartermaster with 
supply officers concerned. Owing to the length of time re- 
quired for the preparation and filling of requisitions, delivery 
of supplies other than class I through railheads usually is not 
satisfactory. The safest and most certain method is delivery 
through army depots. Corps motor transportation can usu- 
ally draw these supplies at the proper depot. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 165. Transportation. — Motor transport operations are 
prescribed by the corps quartermaster, based upon standing 
operating procedure for that corps and such orders as may be 
issued by the commander, and executed by the corps motor 
officer who commands the truck battalion. 

a. Motor transportation pool. — (1) The basis of all op- 
erations of the motor transport of the corps quartermaster 
service is the motor transport pool under the corps motor 
officer. Motor vehicles of other corps troop units and their 
operating personnel, when not required exclusively for the 
service of their own units, may be attached to this pool for 
operation in the general passenger and supply movements 
of the corps. All or a portion of the quartermaster vehicles 
of the divisions may also be assigned to the corps pool. 

(2) When all the quartermaster vehicles of a division 
are assigned to the pool, the division commander may not use 
those vehicles without securing the approval of the corps. 
If only a portion of the division quartermaster vehicles are 
assigned to the pool, the division commander may use the 
vehicles of his division not so assigned but must secure ap- 
proval of the corps if the vehicles assigned to the pool are 
needed by the division. 

(3) The pool may be operated as a physical pool in which 
all the vehicles assigned to the pool are bivouacked in one 
locality. Another more usual method of operating the pool 
is to leave the vehicles assigned to the pool in their bivouacs, 
but remaining available to the corps motor officer for assign- 
ment to such missions as are required. Those vehicles assigned 
to the pool and remaining in their own bivouacs may not be 
used by their organizations without prior approval from the 
corps motor officer. 



130 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP OPERATIONS 165 

t 

(4) The corps motor officer should maintain a chart or 
other ready method of ascertaining the status of the vehicles 
of the pool, together with their location. A suitable chart 
for maintaining such a record can be made with graph paper, 
the vertical scale representing trucks or groups of trucks, the 
horizontal scale representing a given period of time. Hori- 
zontal lines may then be drawn opposite the trucks for the 
period that they are in use. 

b. Headquarters garage. — Passenger car and motorcycle 
service for corps headquarters, including the message center, 
is provided by the headquarters garage. Except for vehicles 
assigned to the corps commander and his principal staff offi- 
cers, passenger cars and motorcycles of headquarters garage 
are operated on a pool basis. The garage is located in the 
vicinity of the rear echelon of corps headquarters. In some 
situations it may be necessary to. locate a subgarage in the 
vicinity of the corps headquarters forward echelon. The 
garage should be located in an existing building, if possible, 
in order to secure protection from hostile observation and air 
attack. 

c. Prescribed loads. — During combat, when transport is re- 
quired for battle service, any prescribed loads in the corps 
truck companies may either be dumped at train bivouacs or 
placed at the disposal of the proper corps supply service chief. 
Quartermaster vehicles engaged in artillery ammunition sup- 
ply usually operate on a job assignment basis, the quarter- 
master remaining responsible for the operation and main- 
tenance of such transport. 

d. Bivouac. — Bivouacs should have a good water supply and 
afford sufficient hard standings for parking purposes. Truck 
companies may bivouac separately. In some instances the 
truck companies are bivouacked in the vicinity of the corps 
class I supply railhead or railheads. If a truck battalion 
(less 2 companies) is provided, the companies may bivouac 
as a battalion, provided parking facilities are available and 
the situation so requires. 

e. Movement. — Coordination of movement of corps quarter- 
master transport employed in the service of supply is ex- 
ercised by the corps commander through the assistant chief of 
staff G— 4. Troop movements and marches are coordinated 
through the assistant chief of staff G-3 and directed in field 
orders or troop movement orders. 



131 



166-169 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

■ 166. Motor Maintenance. — a. The corps quartermaster serv- 
ice is responsible for the operation of third echelon of motor 
maintenance for corps troops. This includes unit replace- 
ment, motor supply, and motor salvage. Motor maintenance 
is in the direct charge of the corps motor maintenance officer. 
Unit replacement, motor salvage operations, and distribution 
of motor equipment and supplies are performed by the light 
maintenance battalion. 

b. Unit replacement shops are established by the light 
maintenance company separately or in groups. Shops are 
to be located convenient to the bivouac or bivouacs of the 
truck battalion. When unit replacement shops serving the 
truck battalion are not located so as to facilitate prompt 
service of other corps troop units, particularly the corps ar- 
tillery, separate shops are to be established in order to serve 
such units. In combat situations, a platoon of a light main- 
tenance company may be attached temporarily to the corps 
artillery brigade. 

■ 167. Labor. — The service company furnishes the personnel 
for the operation of quartermaster utilities and the handling 
of loads carried on the truck companies and is the nucleus of 
the corps labor pool. Normally this company moves with 
the truck companies and bivouacs convenient to it. When 
available, service platoons may be attached to divisions to 
reinforce the division labor pool and to perform the labor 
necessary in connection with burial. 

■ 168. Marchers. — When on the march, vehicles and units of 
the corps quartermaster service are assigned to columns in 
accordance with their normal rate of march. The truck 
companies and light maintenance company and the gasoline 
supply company may be marched as one organization or by 
separate units. The car platoon moves with the corps head- 
quarters. The service company usually moves with the truck 
battalion. 

■ 169. Utility Services. — a. Utility services of the corps 
quartermaster service may be briefly classified as follows: 

Salvage. 

Transportation. 

General. 



132 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 169-171 

b. Salvage utility service includes mobile and portable es- 
tablishments set up by attached supply units, such as laundry, 
sterilization and bath, salvage collecting, and shoe and textile 
repair companies. They operate under an assistant to the 
supply officer, designated as the salvage officer. Transporta- 
tion utility service includes all motor maintenance units. 
The general utility service includes all other quartermaster 
units performing utility work and not otherwise classified. 

■ 170. Graves Registration. — a. The graves registration 
officer is detailed from available officers of the corps quar- 
termaster service and serves as such under the general super- 
vision of the chief of the administrative division. The graves 
registration officer is charged with all graves registration and 
mortuary matters pertaining to corps troops. 

b. Personnel required for registration and other adminis- 
trative work is provided by the administrative division. The 
labor required for burial duty is furnished from combat troops 
or from the quartermaster service company, while the neces- 
sary transportation is detailed from the truck battalion. 

c. In situations where the administrative personnel of the 
corps quartermaster service is inadequate to perform the 
registration work required, a graves registration unit may 
be attached by the army, the size of which is determined by 
the requirements. 

d. In battle, a graves registration and burial detachment 
is stationed at the clearing station for corps troops. Another 
detachment operates from the corps troops cemetery. Col- 
lections are made at unit aid stations and from burial collect- 
ing stations established during the search of the battlefield. 
One additional service company is required to handle the 
average burial requirements of corps troops during battle 
where burial is performed by the quartermaster service. 

■ 171. Salvage. — a. Field salvage is a function of the supply 
division, performed under the supervision of an officer of the 
quartermaster service detailed as salvage officer. 

b. The salvage officer arranges for the systematic routine 
collection of salvage at unit distributing points for class I 
supplies or other collecting points, and its evacuation to the 
railhead for corps troops or to a sorting station. Salvage 



133 



171-173 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



which can be used by the corps may be retained for issue. 
All other salvaged material is evacuated to communications 
zone depots for reclamation. 

c. Salvage operations of the corps quartermaster service 
are performed by detachments of the service battalion espe- 
cially assigned to such work. Special salvage units may be 
attached for duty under the corps quartermaster. These 
units include detachments of salvage collecting companies, 
laundry companies, and sterilization and bath companies. 

d. No reclamation facilities are established in the corps. 

■ 172. Movements by Rail. — a. The corps quartermaster is 
concerned with the movement by rail of corps troops or of 
units thereof. When such a movement is ordered, the corps 
quartermaster arranges through the designated shipping 
quartermaster or, if none is designated, direct with the 
agent of the military railway service for the transportation 
requirements of corps troops and for detailed information 
with reference to entraining points and train schedules. (See 
PM 10-5.) 

b. The corps quartermaster Is responsible for arranging 
for the provision of ramps and permanent loading details at 
entraining and detraining points to assist corps troops in 
loading heavy mobile equipment. 

c. The corps quartermaster usually assists G-3 In the prep- 
aration of the entraining table for corps troops, which is 
issued as an annex to the field order. (See PM 10-5 and 
100-10.) 

Section II 
INDEPENDENT CORPS 

■ 173. Composition. — a. The independent corps differs from 
the corps as part of an army only in that It is responsible 
for the administration, supply, and evacuation of all troops 
in the corps, and functions in this respect the same as an 
army, while in the corps as part of an army the corps Is 
responsible, in general, for the administration, supply, and 
evacuation of corps troops only. To permit the independent 
corps to perform its additional functions of administration, 
supply, and evacuation, it is necessary to reinforce its organic 
corps troops with service troops from higher echelons. 



134 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 173-175 

b. The quartermaster service of the Independent corps 
consists of the organic quartermaster service of the corps 
and such reinforcing quartermaster personnel and units as 
are necessary to furnish a quartermaster service for the 
corps as a whole. 

c. In general, it might be said that reinforcing quarter- 
master personnel detachments and units which may be re- 
quired to operate the quartermaster service of the independ- 
ent corps include the units similar to those attached to the 
army. (See FM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

■ 174. Quartermaster of Independent Corps. — a. The quar- 
termaster of the independent corps has the following func- 
tions to perform: 

(1) Special staff duties. 

(2) The quartermaster service for corps troops. 

(3) A quartermaster service for the corps as a whole. 

(4) Command of all corps organic and attached quar- 
termaster troops. 

b. The quartermaster of an independent corps functions 
the same as the quartermaster of an army. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 175. Headquarters Corps Quartermaster Service. — a. The 
office of the corps quartermaster is charged with the super- 
vision and direction of all quartermaster activities pertain- 
ing to the corps as a whole. The corps quartermaster's office 
is located at the rear echelon of corps headquarters. 

b. The executive officer assists the corps quartermaster in 
the performance of his special staff duties and is second in 
command of the corps quartermaster service. 

c. (1) The office of the corps quartermaster is divided into 
three main divisions as follows: administrative, supply, and 
transportation. 

(2) The administrative division, under its chief, is responsi- 
ble for the preparation of the plans and orders of the corps 
quartermaster. It administers personnel, graves registra- 
tion and burial activities, and the quartermaster general 
labor pool. It also maintains the office of record for the sorps 
quartermaster. 

(3) The supply division, under the quartermaster supply 
officer, is charged with the provision and distribution of all 
quartermaster supplies (except motor transport supplies and 
equipment), animal replacements, and the control of at- 

13 = 



175-176 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



tached supply units. Supply depots, under the corps quarter- 
master, operate under the direct control of this division. 

(4) The transportation division operates under the 
quartermaster transportation officer and administers all 
transportation activities of the corps quartermaster service. 
These include the shipment of troops and supplies by rail, 
water, or motor transport, the employment of the corps 
motor pool, the Inspection and third echelon maintenance of 
quartermaster motor vehicles of corps troops, and motor 
maintenance and supply for the corps as a whole. 

■ 176. Operations. — When an army corps is detached from 
an army for both operation and administration, it becomes 
in effect a small army and, therefore, is responsible for its 
own supply and evacuation. Quartermaster supply instal- 
lations, similar in character to those prescribed for the army, 
are operated by the corps. In most situations it is not 
necessary to establish more than one quartermaster depot 
for class II and class IV supplies. Two depots may be re- 
quired for class III supplies. Class I supplies are handled 
in a manner similar to that outlined for the army in chapter 
9. The same general types of supply installations, rail- 
heads, depots, and distributing points are used in supplying 
the independent corps. (See PM 100-10 and 10-5.) 



136 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 177 



CHAPTER 5 
THE ARMY 

■ 177. Organization of Quartermaster Service. — a. In order 
to provide a nucleus for the performance oi quartermaster 
services to the army, a quartermaster section is provided 
for in the army headquarters. This section is organized as 
follows: 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE 
HEADQUARTERS FIELD ARMY 
26 officers 
58 enlisted men 
T/0 200-1 



Administrative 
Division 


Major general- - 


1 


Colonel 


2 


Lieutenant 




colonel 




Major,. _ ___ 


4 


Captain... 


2 


Firstlieutenant 


1 


Total officers- 


10 


Enlisted men... 


18 



Supply 
Division 



10 

25 



'iransportailui 
Division 




The enlisted men of the office of the army quartermaster's 
office perform clerical duties and are attached to the army 
headquarters company for the purpose of military adminis- 
tration and messing. 

b. The normal attachments of quartermaster units from 
GHQ to a field army constitute the army quartermaster 
service, as follows: 

One regiment, truck, T/O 10-51. 

Three battalions, light maintenance, T/O 10-25. 

One battalion, gasoline supply, T/O 10-75. 

One company, car, T/O 10-87. 

One company, depot (motor transport), T/O 10-48. 
One company, depot (supply), T/O 10-227. 
One battalion, sterilization and bath, T/O 10-175. 
Six battalions, service (labor), T/O 10-65. 



137 



177-179 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



These units provide supply and transportation service to the 
army troops and are available for reattachment to the corps 
and/or divisions of the army. (See FM 10-5.) 

c. In some situations it may be necessary to attach 
additional quartermaster troops to the army. 

d. The duties and functions of the army quartermaster 
service are similar to those outlined for the division and 
corps in paragraphs 118, 119, and 162. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 178. Organization of Army Quartermaster's Office. — The 
army quartermaster's office may be organized in a manner 
similar to that for the division and corps as respectively out- 
lined in paragraphs 121 and 162. The army quartermaster 
heads the quartermaster section of the field army headquar- 
ters. Each of the three divisions of this office is headed by 
a colonel, and sufficient personnel is provided to handle the 
administrative details. If, in any situation, the volume of 
work becomes too great to be handled by one division, it may 
be necessary to create additional divisions, such as a utility 
division, which will supervise the operations of all 
quartermaster utilities within the army. 

■ 179. Operations. — a. Class I and class III supplies. — Class 
I and class III supplies are usually provided on an automatic 
daily basis. Calls for class I and class III supplies are made 
by means of the daily telegram. Division and corps quarter- 
masters prepare and send to the army quartermaster the 
daily telegram pertaining to their respective units. The army 
quartermaster prepares a consolidated daily telegram, includ- 
ing provisions for the army troops, and dispatches it to the 
regulating officer. This officer, through his quartermaster 
supply officer, notifies the designated depot of the communi- 
cations zone (or zone of the interior) to forward the required 
supplies. These depots make up the shipments as required 
and dispatch them to the regulating station where the sup- 
plies are sorted and prepared for shipment to the various 
division, corps, and army railheads. The distribution of sup- 
plies from army railheads is identical to that outlined for 
the division in chapter 6. 

b. Class II and class IV supplies. — (1) Class II and class IV 
supplies are usually made available to the army in the form 
of credits at designated communications zone depots. When 



138 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 179 

credits are established for an army in communications zone 
depots, calls are made as necessary by the army quarter- 
master service directly upon the proper communications zone 
depot or through the quartermaster supply officer at the 
regulating station. If sent directly to the communications 
zone depot, a copy is sent to the regulating officer for his 
information. Shipments are made at the depots and dis- 
patched through the regulating station to the proper army 
quartermaster supply establishment. The army may send 
motor transportation to the depot to draw the supplies when- 
ever the situation warrants such action. The army may 
further reallocate to the division and corps troops such credits 
of these classes as may have been set up for the army. When 
credits are so established, division and corps troops may make 
calls as required direct to the proper communications zone 
depot through the division or corps quartermaster service. 
In addition, the army may establish credits for the division 
and corps troops in army depots. Calls may be made by divi- 
sion and corps quartermaster services in the same manner 
as outlined above for communications zone credits. In either 
instance, division and corps transportation may be sent direct 
to the depot for the desired supplies, in which case they do 
not pass through the regulating station. 

(2) If credits have not been established, supply is on a 
requisition basis. Under these circumstances supply officers 
for division and corps troops submit requisitions approved by 
their unit commanders direct to the army quartermaster 
where the requisitions are filled either from available stocks 
in army quartermaster depots or extracted to the communica- 
tions zone depots. 

c. Class V supplies. — Class V supplies are normally- made 
available in the form of credits at designated supply points 
for a stated period or operation. The quartermaster is con- 
cerned with Class V supplies only because the quartermaster 
service may frequently be called upon to furnish transporta- 
tion for movement of ammunition. 

d. Salvage. — The initial collection of salvage rests with the 
various units within the army area and it is then collected 
by the division, corps, or army quartermasters at railheads 
or other salvage collecting points. The salvage at these points 
is sorted and prepared for shipment to salvage depots in the 
communications zone. Those articles that may be repaired 



139 



179-182 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



locally are retrined in the area and the repairs accomplished 
as soon as possible. In order to provide for the reception, 
sorting, and shipment of salvage, it may be necessary to 
attach to the army one or more salvage collecting companies. 
e. Gasoline and oil. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 180. Stockage. — Hie level of supplies of the several classes 
to be established and maintained in the army service will 
be determined by the army commander based on many con- 
siderations, such as status of credits, length, vulnerability, and 
capacity of lines of communication, tactical (strategical) lines 
of action under consideration, and status of supply within 
subordinate units. The minimum stockage will consist of 1 
day of class I supply and sufficient motor fuel and lubricants 
to resupply all vehicles for 1 day's maximum activity (class 
III) . Items of pssentia' combat supplies of classes II and TV 
usually will be stocked in quantities sufficient to replace ex- 
penditures for 1 or 2 days of operations. (See also FM 100-10 
and 10-5.) 

■ 181. Service at Army Supply Points. — The army quarter- 
master service furnishes a commander, staff, and the techni- 
cally trained personnel required for the operation of each 
quartermaster supply point stocked with supplies for the 
procurement and distribution of which it is responsible. 
Labor and trucks are detailed from the army pool as re- 
quired. Service personnel operating with the army not only 
stock supply points but also load trucks dispatched for re- 
filling from divisions and from army and corps troops. (See 
FM 100-10 an-* J.0-5.) 

■ 182. Location of Depots. — As the bulk of supplies shipped 
into army installations usually arrives by rail, the unloading 
point for depots must be at points on the rail net affording 
the necessary siding facilities. In the interest of safety 
against hostile air bombardment, supplies should be dispersed 
as rapidly as possible. This may be accomplished either by 
utilizing many railroad sidings or by unloading railroad cars 
promptly and dispersing supplies in small groups accessible 
to roads throughout a large area. The latter method not 
only furnishes protection but may also facilitate issues to 
the troops. If the railroad unloading point for any depot 
is too far to the rear to support adequately the combat troops, 



140 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 182-183 

the depot should be advanced from the unloading point far 
enough to be within reach of the unit trains. To provide 
protection, the operations described above will frequently 
have to be carried out during periods of low visibility, or at 
night without lights. (See PM 10-5 and 100-10.) 

■ 183. Army Depots. — a. Army depots should not be estab- 
lished unless the situation clearly demands such establish- 
ments, for the army should normally look to the communica- 
tions zone for replenishment of supplies through railheads 
or other supply points. 

b. Army depots are wasteful of labor and materiel; labor, 
because it operates under adverse conditions without labor 
saving devices and where abnormal storage conditions will 
usually be found; materiel, because in the rehandling of 
supplies there is bound to be deterioration or breaking of 
packages. 

c. Any army depot should, except in particularly long 
stabilized situations, be considered as merely a transfer point 
for the transportation, rehandling, and sorting facilities 
sufficient for the prompt and orderly transfer of supplies to 
the trains of the combat units. Reserve stocks should be 
held to a minimum. However, it will probably be normal to 
maintain from 2 to 4 days of reserve stocks in an army area, 
of which there will be from 1 to 3 days available in the army 
depot. 

d. In the early stages of campaign, before a communica- 
tions zone is organized, army depots may be established as the 
first echelon of supply to fill the current needs of the troops. 
These depots then become, in effect, advance depots. 

e. Organisation. — An army depot, being a branch depot, 
should be organized in a manner similar to that of any other 
branch depot. See figure 16 showing the possible set-up of 
an army quartermaster supply depot. The administrative 
division provides the necessary personnel to administer to 
the needs of the depot. The supply division provides trained 
personnel for receiving, storing, and issuing supplies. The 
depot division provides trained personnel for the entire house- 
keeping of the depot, including messing, operation of motor 
transport, maintenance, and repair, including roads of tha 
depot proper. 

438624°— 42 10 141 



183-185 QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 

/. Personnel for operating army quartermaster depots is 
provided by a depot (supply) company, that is normally 
attached to the army. This organization provides the cleri- 
cal and administrative personnel incident to operating the 
depot, while the labor required at the depot is supplied by 
the quartermaster service regiments that are attached to 
the army. 

g. Field remount depots. — If the military situation demands 
a large number of animals with an army, it will be necessary 
to have attachments of field remount squadrons in order 
to operate the necessary field remount depots that may be 
established. The supply of animals through these depots 
may be either through the medium of credits or by requisi- 
tion. In either case the using unit will send detachments 
to remount depots to draw the animals when ready for 
issue and transport them to their respective organizations. 
In some situations animals may be shipped by rail. The 
attachment of any quartermaster units will be dependent 
upon the situation. (See PM 100-10 and 10-5.) 

■ 184. Establishments. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 185. Fundamentals Governing Lay-Outs. — a. In laying out 
a depot the fundamental of dispersion should be given para- 
mount consideration. Figure 17 shows a schematic lay-out 
for a depot. This takes full advantage of the road net, use 
of rail unloading facilities, storage in buildings, and disper- 
sion of open storage facilities. Trains deliver to Point A, 
where supplies are transferred to motor or animal transpor- 
tation and taken to the proper storage point, such as items 
of clothing to Point B. Units drawing supplies send their 
vehicles to the parking space "C", and the vehicles are con- 
cealed there while the unit train commander proceeds to the 
office, Point D. As soon as he has submitted his requisition 
and received his instructions as to where the supplies will be 
drawn, he proceeds to the parking area, directs his vehicles 
to the proper loading point, B, if he is to draw clothing, 
loads, and after loading, returns via out-bound route to his 
organization area. 

b. It must be borne in mind that the fundamentals in the 
operation of any army depot are "speed" and "simplicity." 
The following are some of the important matters that should 



142 



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185 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 




be considered in laying out an army quartermaster supply 
depot: 

(1) Lay-out should be so arranged as to effect maximum 
speed in delivery. 

(2) It should have sufficient trackage for incoming trains. 

(3) Keep main railway lines clear at all times. 

(4) Trackage to be for transit only. Do not attempt to 
store on or near tracks. 

(5) Have one or two buildings for storage of small and 
valuable articles. 



144 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 185 

(6) Plots used for storage to be raised from 6 to 12 
inches. 

(7) Store on dunnage and cover with camouflaged tar- 
paulins. 

(8) Keep area well drained. 

(9) Do not store over 6 feet in height. Higher storage 
will throw shadows visible in air photographs. 

(10) Storage of goods should be staggered to avoid loss 
of entire stock of any one article in case of enemy bombing. 
(See also PM 10-5 and 100-10.) 



145 



186-187 



QUARTERMASTER VIELD MANUAL 



CHAPTER 6 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE 



Section I. Air Force 
II. GHQ 



Paragraphs 

... 186-188 
... 189-192 



Section I 
AIR FORCE 

■ 186. General. — For mission and general duties in an air 
base depot, see FM 10-5. 

■ 187. Quartermaster Troops with Air Force. — a. The quar- 
termaster corps troops assigned to an air force are organized 
into a quartermaster service consisting of a special staff sec- 
tion at each of the headquarters of the command, such as air 
base, wing, and air force; a separate quartermaster company 
(air base) for each air base established; and certain truck, 
light maintenance, and service units. The units are organized 
into companies, battalions, and regiments for command con- 
trol and operations, depending on the location, composition, 
and strength of the air force to be served. (See fig. 18 and 
FM 100-10.) 

b. The special staff or quartermaster section at each head- 
quarters is organized and operates similar to the quarter- 
master section of a division, corps, or army headquarters. 
The officer who commands the quartermaster section of an 
air base headquarters is called the air base quartermaster; 
that of a wing, the wing quartermaster; and that of an air 
force, the air force quartermaster. 

c. The quartermaster company, separate (air base), T/O 
10-357, provides the necessary personnel for the operation of 
all the quartermaster corps facilities at an air base and a 
mobile unit for the establishment and operation of such 
field facilities as are required. It augments the quartermaster 
personnel at other established air bases when needed, and 
furnishes the necessary distributing point details within the 
air base areas occupied. The company is composed of a 
company headquarters and four platoons. Its organization 
and duties are — 

(1) Company headquarters. — Performs the usual company 
administrative duties. 

(2) Headquarters platoon. — Provides the necessary per- 
sonnel for the operation of the air base quartermaster's 



H6 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE' IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 187 

office for the administration of all quartermaster corps fa- 
cilities of the air base. It performs such administrative 
duties as personnel, fiscal, mail, records, cemeterial, real 
estate including leasing, quartering of troops, purchase, and 
contract. 

(3) Supply platoon. — Provides personnel for the procure- 
ment, warehousing, and issue of quartermaster corps sup- 
plies and equipment to include fuel, gasoline and lubricants 
for motor vehicles, general supplies, clothing and equipage, 
subsistence and ice, and salvage. 

(4) Transportation platoon. — Provides personnel for the 
operation and maintenance of the air base (base airdrome) 
motor, rail, animal, and water transportation including tech- 
nical inspection and excepting third echelon of motor main- 
tenance for motor vehicles. It establishes and operates the 
base airdrome motor transport pool. 

d. The quartermaster company, supply aviation (T/O 
10-367), is composed of the usual company headquarters, 
a depot platoon, a refilling point platoon, and a distributing 
point platoon. The total strength of the company depends 
upon the strength of the depot platoon, refilling point pla- 
toon, and distributing point platoon. The total strength 
indicated includes 3 depot sections, 4 refilling point sections, 
and 50 distributing point sections. The depot platoon is or- 
ganized to handle 3 depot sections which may be widely 
separated. For training purposes, detachments of the com- 
pany are assigned by air force commanders to air bases. 
These detachments augment the air base quartermaster sec- 
tions of the corps area service command. 

(1) Company headquarters. — Performs the normal com- 
pany administrative duties. 

(2) Depot platoon. — Provides personnel for the operation 
of the quartermaster section of the air force air base, a 
quartermaster class I supply depot, and a quartermaster 
class in supply depot. If one or more of these sections is 
not required, the strength of the platoon will be reduced 
accordingly. 

(3) Refilling point platoon. — Provides personnel for the 
establishment, operation, and maintenance of refilling points 
for class I and class in supplies in each air base area as 
required, and Its strength may vary accordingly. 



147 



187 



QtJARTERMAST^™ FIELD MANUAL 




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149 



187-188 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



(4) Distributing point platoon. — Provides personnel for 
two-man distributing point sections for each combat and 
headquarters squadron. The strength of the platoon varies 
with the number of distributing sections required. One sec- 
tion is required for each combat and headquarters squadron 
in the air force. The normal strength for purpose of plan- 
ning is 100. 

e. Truck companies. — Quartermaster truck battalions are 
normally assigned at the rate of one per wing. If more than 
one battalion is assigned they will be organized into a regi- 
ment of two or more battalions, depending on the number. 
The number of truck companies assigned to a battalion is 
determined by the number of combat groups assigned to 
a wing on the basis of one truck company per combat group 
assigned. The truck companies are charged with the general 
movement of supplies and troops between refilling and dis- 
tributing points, especially the transportation of aviation 
gasoline and lubricants and ammunition. They augment the 
motor vehicles assigned to tactical organizations of the air 
force in the transportation of troops, baggage, and field 
equipment by convoy during cross-country operations. 

/. Light maintenance companies. — These are assigned nor- 
mally one per wing and are charged with the operation of 
motor repair shops, both air base and mobile field, for the 
third echelon of motor maintenance of all motor vehicles 
assigned to organizations of the air force. It makes the 
necessary technical inspections of motor vehicles. 

fir. Service companies. — Quartermaster service companies 
(labor) are normally assigned at the rate of one per wing. 
Two or more companies are organized into a service battalion 
which provides the necessary labor personnel for the han- 
dling of all classes of supplies within the air base areas, and 
the operation of labor pools. 

■ 188. Operations. — a. Operation of Quartermaster facili- 
ties. — Within each air base area designated by the air force 
commander, quartermaster personnel already assigned to the 
air base is available, augmented by the mobile field units from 
the separate quartermaster companies (air base) assigned 
to other air bases; truck, maintenance, and labor units as 
determined by the air force commander operate the quarter- 
master facilities at air base establishments. 



150 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE JN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 188 

(1) Air base airdrome. — This is an Air Corps establishment 
assigned to the air force and contains the flying field and all 
installations and facilities for operations, maintenance, and 
supply of troops and their equipment. It is normally a one- 
group or two-group station and is under the command of an 
air base commander with his headquarters thereat. When 
time and space are factors in the distribution of supplies from 
the zone of the interior or communications zone depots, an 
air force depot is established at the air base airdrome under 
the command of the air base commander. It is a general 
depot and contains a quartermaster section which is oper- 
ated by the air base quartermaster with personnel from the 
separate quartermaster company (air base). The air force 
commander designates the level at which stocks of quarter- 
master corps supplies will be maintained. (See also FM 
100-10.) 

(2) Sub-air base airdromes. — In an air base area where 
transportation facilities are limited or distances too great for 
proper distribution by quartermaster truck units, one or more 
sub-base airdromes are established by the air base com- 
mander for, the distribution of quartermaster class I supplies 
and certain designated items of classes II, III, and IV supplies 
when air transports from the air base are inoperative. Quar- 
termaster personnel from the mobile field unit of the separate 
quartermaster company (air base) , and truck and labor units 
are placed thereat for the handling and issue of these supplies 
to combat units at designated distributing points. It is com- 
manded by a representative of the air base commander and 
functions as a small air force depot. (See FM 100-5.) 

(3) Quartermaster class I holding and recoiisignment 
point. — Where quartermaster class I supplies cannot be ob- 
tained direct from convenient quartermaster distributing 
agencies of the zone of the interior and communications zone 
or commercial distributing agencies, a quartermaster class I 
supplies rail holding and reconsignment point is established 
on a railroad where these supplies are made up daily for dis- 
tribution to troops at designated distributing points either 
by rail or by quartermaster truck units assigned to the air 
force. A representative from the air base commander and 
a representative from the air base transportation office with 
necessary personnel for the handling and distribution of 
supplies is placed thereat. (See also FM 100-10.) 



151 



188-192 



QUARTERMASTER MANUAL 



(4) Supply points. — Supply points for aviation gasoline 
and oil, ordnance ammunition and bombs, chemical sup- 
plies to include decontamination equipment, and engineer 
materials are established in the air base area as needed and 
operated by their respective services under the air base com- 
mander concerned. The number and type will depend on the 
particular requirements of the troops served, terrain, trans- 
portation facilities available, and the location of the zone of 
the interior or communications zone depots. Quartermaster 
personnel to include truck and labor units of the air force 
assigned to the air base by the air force commander are 
conveniently placed for the proper handling and transporting 
of these supplies from the supply points to distributing or 
other points for issue to combat troops. 

(5) Distributing points. — See FM 10-5 and 100-10. 

b. Distribution of quartermaster supplies. — See FM 10-5. 

Section n 
GHQ 

■ 189. General Functions. — See FM 10-5. 

■ 190. Quartermaster, GHQ. — See FM 101-5 and 10-5 and 
T/O 300-1. 

■ 191. Organization.— See FM 10-5. 

■ 192. Establishment. — See FM 10-5. 



152 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 193-194 



CHAPTER 7 

TROOP MOVEMENTS 

Section I. Assigned motor transport 

H. Shuttling 

III. Railway 

Section I 
ASSIGNED MOTOR TRANSPORT 

■ 193. General. — Details covering motor movements are 
found in FM. 100-10, 101-10, 25-10, and 10-5. 

■ 194. Discussion. — a. Regulating point. — A regulating 
point is a point where an incoming motor transport column 
is separated into detachments for entrucking groups. It 
should be an easily recognizable terrain feature where the 
selected routes through the entrucking or detrucking areas 
diverge. It should be at or near the road intersection nearest 
the entrucking area so that the truck groups will arrive at 
the entrucking point from the direction desired. The dis- 
tances truck groups must travel under decentralized control 
should be reduced to a minimum. 

6. Initial point. — An initial point is a point where two or 
more motor groups are brought under the control of the 
column commander. It should be an easily recognized terrain 
feature on the route the column is to follow and at a point 
on this route at which truck groups converge to form a 
column. 

c. Entrucking points. — Entrucking points are the points 
where the head of a truck column halts for the entrucking of 
troops and materiel. They should be easily recognized ter- 
rain features on the selected routes through the entrucking 
area. They should be at or near the bivouac or assembly 
area of the troops to be transported, preferably on the side 
of the area toward the initial points. They should be so 
selected that the distances necessary for troops to march for 
entrucking is reduced to a minimum. 

d. Entrucking groups. — Entrucking groups consist of troops, 
materiel, and supplies entrucked at one entrucking point. 
(See also PM 25-10.) 

153 



Paragraphs 
193-194 

195-200 

201 



194 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



e. Routes. — The routes followed through any area will be 
the shortest routes available and will require the minimum 
of marching by the troops. 

/. Work sheet. — In preparing a work sheet, the entrucking 
groups should be numbered serially in the order they will 
leave the area. 

(1) These groups should be entered in column 1 on the 
work sheet. 

(2) Column 2 gives the number of trucks assigned to each 
group. 

(3) Column 3 indicates the length of the motor transport 
columns in minutes. 

(4) The time the head of each truck group passes the 
regulating point is entered in column 4. 

(5) The time distances from the regulating point to the 
entrucking point are entered in column 5. This computation 
is derived by measuring the distance between the two points 
and converting it into minutes based upon the rate of march. 

(6) Column 6 shows the hour the head of each group 
arrives at the entrucking point and is computed by adding 
column 5 to column 4. 

(7) Column 7 shows the time distances from the entruck- 
ing point to the initial point in terms of minutes. 

(8) The earliest that the head of the column can pass the 
initial point is equal to the time of the arrival, plus the total 
delay of all groups at the regulating point, plus the time of 
the longest route through the area, plus 30 minutes for in- 
spection and entrucking. This time as computed should be 
entered in column 8 for the first group. The time each suc- 
ceeding group passes the initial point is equal to the time the 
first group passes, plus the time length of each preceding 
group. 

(9) The hour the head of each group leaves the entrucking 
point (column 9) is determined by substracting column 7 
from column 8. 

(10) Column 10 gives the hour the entrucking should begin, 
and is found by subtracting 15 minutes from the times entered 
in column 9. (See also FM 25-10.) 

g. Entrucking table. — The data from the work sheet may be 
entered under its proper column in the entrucking table. As 
this is an annex to the field order, care should be exercised 
in placing the number of the annex and field order in the 



154 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 194-196 

table and that it is signed or authenticated by the proper.staff 
officers. (See FNL 101-5.) 

Section II 
SHUTTLING 

■ 195. General. — A shuttle movement is a movement of a 
partially motorized unit in which all or part of the trucks 
are required to make successive trips to complete the move- 
ment of the armament, equipment, and personnel of the unit. 
Its purpose is to utilize the available transportation to the 
greatest practicable extent in order to make movements in 
minimum time. It also conserves the energy of troops and 
makes possible the moving of units greater distances. 

o. The pooling of all means of transport within subordinate 
units to the extent required is necessary in shuttling opera- 
tions. Sufficient trucks should be pooled, when available, to 
complete the movement in three trips or less. 

b. Shuttling movements are of two general types. One, in 
which the foot elements are transported the entire distance 
in motors, and the Other in which the foot elements march 
part of the distance and are transported the remaining dis- 
tance. Movements of the first type are, in effect, a series 
of movements by motor transportation, the unit being di- 
vided into serials to conform to the accommodations which 
are available in the trucks. (See EM 25-10.) 

■ 196. Planning and Preparation. — a. Preparation for shuttle 
movements includes timely issue of warning orders, recon- 
naissance, determination of the formation for the movement, 
and field orders as in other methods of marching. Addi- 
tional preparation in shuttling requires allotment of vehicles 
and designation of assembly points therefor. The allotment 
of vehicles requires shifting the means of transport from one 
unit to another. A determination of which units of the com- 
mand should furnish trucks for the movement of other units 
is made by reference to tables of transportation on hand in 
the several components of the command. The commander 
designates a part of all specific classes of vehicles as available 
for pooling after an estimate of the tactical and supply re- 
quirements of the situation in conjunction with the following 
considerations: 



155 



196-197 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

(1) . Vehicles required in the maintenance of mobility, such 
as gasoline and oil supply vehicles, motor maintenance ve- 
hicles, road building vehicles, and the requirements of 
motorized security detachments. 

(2) Vehicles required in the exercise of command, such as 
radio trucks and other cargo trucks used for communication. 

(3) Vehicles required for combat purposes, such as anti- 
aircraft trucks, trucks of antimechanized units and weapon 
and ammunition carriers of units not a component of 
advance or flank security detachments. 

(4) Vehicles required for supply purposes, such as am- 
munition, kitchen, medical aid station, and general cargo 
trucks. 

(5) Vehicles that may be attached from a higher unit and 
the time and place they are to be released. 

b. Shuttling movements follow the procedure for troop 
movements by assigned motor transport as outlined in PM 
100-10 and 101-10. Certain factors outlined below, however, 
must be considered in planning shuttling movements. Some 
or all of the motors must make at least two round trips, 
necessitating turn-arounds, that is, reversing the direction of 
movement of the motor column. Therefore, a preliminary 
road reconnaissance is essential in order that suitable road 
circuits for this purpose may be selected. It may be neces- 
sary for the motor column to leave the prescribed route of 
mar«h for short distances for the purpose of turning around. 
In this case, the added distance traveled by the trucks must 
be considered in computing the time distance for the trip. 

c. If foot troops are to be picked up en route, the move- 
ments of the motors and foot elements must be so timed 
as to bring them to the entrucking point at approximately 
the same time. 

d. It may be necessary to drop the normal loads of certain, 
or all, of the trucks in order to make the shuttling movement. 
Time must be allowed for this in planning. (See also FM. 
25-10.) 

■ 197. Composition of Serials. — a. In situations in which the 
tactical requirements are paramount, the composition of 
serials should be such as best meet these requirements while 
the convenience of the troops receives secondary considera- 
tion. As in other marches, the serials are composed of ele- 



156 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 197-198 

ments which move at the same normal rates of speed. In 
a shuttling movement it may be necessary to have several 
serials of the same type but moving independently of each 
other. Thus, in the movement of the regiment there may 
be several serials of foot elements. It would be illogical to 
march all of these elements in one serial to the entrucking 
point en route when only a portion of them can be accom- 
modated at one time in the motor transportation available. 
The arrangement of the serials involves a consideration of the 
commander's general plan for the movement, the length of 
the march, the road net, the cargo and troops to be moved 
by motor, and the number and capacity of the vehicles avail- 
able. These factors having been considered, the order or 
priority of movement is then fixed so as to insure the most 
expeditious movement. 

b. Because of their limited capacity and because they are 
normally needed for the control and service of the movement, 
the use of the command and maintenance vehicles for the 
transportation of the dismounted elements is not warranted. 
Owing to their limited capacity and lack of seats the %-ton 
trailers will ordinarily not be used for the transportation of 
personnel, although they may be so used in emergency. 

c. Certain of the vehicles of regiments have assigned loads. 
These loads constitute the cargo to be moved. They consist 
of one or several of the following categories: 

(1) Weapons. 

(2) Ammunition. 

(3) Personnel. 

(4) Supplies. 

(5) Equipment. 

Whether to transport these loads to the march destination 
before or after transporting the dismounted elements will us- 
ually depend upon the conditions peculiar to the particular 
movement. 

■ 198. Movement of Serials. — a. It may be possible to ar- 
range the order, or priority, of movement of the serials to 
suit the convenience of the unit, or it may be necessary to 
have them move in a specific order because of conditions be- 
yond the control of the commander. When practicable, the 
serials should be so arranged that — 

(1) The maximum use is made of the motor transportation 
available. 

438624°— ^2 11 157 



198-199 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

(2) The foot elements are required to march the minimum 
distance on foot and without excessively long halts en route 
awaiting transportation. 

b. In the usual case, the problem of the priority of movement 
resolves itself into a consideration of the desirability or neces- 
sity of moving the normal loads before or after the foot ele- 
ments are transported. In the absence of any conditions 
which might render one method more desirable than the 
other, one of the following general methods may be followed: 

(1) The prescribed loads are initially left at the old bivouac, 
and those foot elements which can be accommodated in the 
motors available are transported to a prescribed point en 
route, whence they continue the march on foot to the march 
destination. The trucks then return to a designated en- 
trucking point en route, to which the remaining foot ele- 
ments, in the meantime, have marched. These are then trans- 
ported to the march destination, the trucks returning to the 
old bivouac where the normal loads are picked up and trans- 
ported to the march destination. 

(2) The trucks carrying the normal loads proceed to the 
march destination, where the loads are dropped. In the 
meantime a serial of foot elements which can be transported 
in one trip by the motors marches a prescribed distance on 
foot. The trucks return to the entrucking point, pick up 
the marching foot elements at -that point, and transport them 
to the destination. The trucks again return to the entruck- 
ing point, pick up the remaining foot elements which have 
marched to the prescribed point, and transport them to the 
destination. 

(3) Clear sufficient transport of prescribed loads in the 
old area to completely motorize a well-balanced force, move 
the force to its destination and return the necessary number 
of empty vehicles to move the remaining troops and cargo to 
the new area. This method is applicable to tactical situa- 
tions wherein combat is expected prior to the completion of 
the movement of the unit. 

■ 199. Necessity for Calculations. — a. General. — In order 
that the serials may move in accordance with a logical time 
schedule, certain preliminary calculations are necessary. 
The S-3 of the unit is normally charged with the preparation 
of the orders for the movement, and, hence, with making 



158 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 199 



the preliminary calculations. Based upon information 
gained on reconnaissance or from a map study he selects the 
initial point, suitable entrucking or detrucking points, and 
turn-arounds for the motors. He makes a tentative arrange- 
ment of serials and computes their time lengths. Then using 
the speedometer readings made on reconnaissance or by 
measuring the distances on the map, he determines the time 
distances of the serials to their destinations. In determining 
the time distances, he allows adequate time for entrucking, 
detrucking, collection or discharge of normal loads, and for 
turn-arounds of motor serials and closing-in time. A rea- 
sonable safety factor determined on the basis of local con- # 
ditions should be injected to cover unforeseen contingencies. 
With this information, he is prepared to fix tentatively the 
order in which the serials are to move and time of departure 
of the various serials from the first initial point, from en- 
trucking or detrucking points en route, or for the return 
trip of the trucks from the march destination. Should the 
route be blocked by cross traffic or be denied the unit for 
any period of time, he must so fix the time of departure of 
the serials as to avoid interference with crossing or parallel 
columns and also to avoid excessively long halts by troops 
or transportation en route. When a satisfactory arrange- 
ment of serials has been determined and approved by the 
commander, the order for the movement is prepared. In 
order that the commander may assure himself that the 
march, as ordered, is capable of execution, the recommenda- 
tions of the S-3_may be presented to him in the form of a 
march graph. 

b. For planning purposes an approximation of the time 
required may be obtained by application of the formula — 

Hours required— Number of snuttles X distance in miles _ T 
Speed in miles per hour 

7* is a variable representing the time consumed in loading, 
unloading, turn-arounds, and closing-in time of the column 
in the area of destination, and varies between wide limits. 
A reasonably safe value to adopt for T, under average condi- 
tions, is 3 hours. 

c. In computations of time and space consideration must 
be given to the variance in density of vehicles per mile of 



159 



199-201 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

highway in daylight and night movements. Daylight move- 
ments should be conducted at an approximate density of 12 
vehicles per mile as a passive means of protection against 
hostile air operations. Night movements are normally con- 
ducted at a density based on a safe driving distance between 
vehicles. For night operations at this density computation 
should be based on 750 vehicles passing a given point in 1 
hour, regardless of the speed employed. 

d. Coordination of shuttle movements requires the desig- 
nation of initial points on the routes of march assigned, time 
each march unit should pass the initial point, the designation 
of an assembly area at destination, and the density and speed 
of the movement. As in movements by assigned transport, 
control points on the routes of march should be established 
as required. Depending upon the time available for prepara- 
tion and planning, coordination may be exercised through 
centralized control or decentralized to subordinate route 
commanders. 

e. The turn-around of transport in shuttling movements 
may be effected on a road circuit, by a loop turn-around in 
a field, or by successive or individual turn-arounds. Choice 
of the type of turn- around is dependent upon the tactical 
situation, the road net, the type of road, weather, control, 
and the state of training of vehicle operators. 

■ 200. Shuttle or Large Forces. — In forces larger than a 
regiment the organic motors of several of the component units 
may be combined to transport the foot elements. For ex- 
ample, in an Infantry division the organic motors of two of 
the Infantry regiments may be used to transport, in turn, 
the foot elements of the regiments the entire distance. These 
motors can transport all of the foot elements of one regiment 
in one trip. While for the unit being moved, this would be 
a movement by motor transport, for the force as a whole it 
would be a shuttling movement. (See FM 25-10, 100-5, 
100-10, and 101-10.) 

Section HI 
RAILWAY 

■ 201. Typical Bail Movement. — For information and data 
see TM 10-375 and FM 101-10. 



160 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OP OPERATIONS 202-204 



CHAPTER 8 

PLANS, ORDERS, ESTIMATE OF SITUATION, AND 
REPORTS 

■ 202. General. — The entire operation of the quartermaster 
services in any unit is put into effect cthrough the medium of 
quartermaster field orders. To provide an understandable 
order that covers all th,e details, a plan, known as the quarter- 
master plan, should be announced by the senior quartermas- 
ter of the unit. This plan is to be based upon an estimate of 
the supply situation as affecting the quartermaster services. 
In every situation, therefore, first, there should be an estimate 
of the situation; second, a plan; and third, a field order. 
These may be mental, oral, or written, depending on circum- 
stances. (See FM 10-5.) 

■ 203. Estimate of Supply Situation. — Every quartermaster 
given a mission should make an estimate. In war and in the 
field this is known as the quartermaster estimate of the sup- 
ply situation. Such an estimate is a thorough study of all 
factors, tangible and intangible, that affect the plan, and it 
should take into consideration all possible intentions of the 
enemy and such contingencies that might affect the plan of 
the commander. The estimate of the supply situation is 
usually a continuous mental process which leads to a decision. 
Where special staff officers are concerned, as, for example, 
a quartermaster, the decisions arrived at are often presented 
to the commander or his general staff in the form of recom- 
mendations. When these recommendations are approved, 
they become the basis for the quartermaster plan. (See FM 
101-5.) 

■ 204. Form for Estimate of Quartermaster Supply and 
Evacuation Situation (See Form 3, FM 101-5). — a. Every 
written estimate is to show in the upper right-hand corner 
the issuing unit, place, date, and hour of the estimate. This 
is followed by a list of those maps that are needed for an 
understanding of the estimate. Paragraph 1 should discuss 
in detail the tactical considerations of our own force and of 
the enemy. Subparagraph a should consider the present dis- 
positions of the major elements of the command. This usually 



161 



204 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



can best be shown on the map. Next, the tactical line of 
action that is under consideration; for example, whether 
the unit will attack, defend, withdraw, etc. Under this tac- 
tical line of action should be considered the probable tactical 
developments, for example, in the attack, whether the method 
to be employed is an envelopment of the right or left flank, 
a penetration, etc. Consideration should be given, also, to 
the period these operations are expected to cover, the antici- 
pated location of the major elements of the command at stated 
intervals during this period, and the probable nature of the 
combat during these same intervals. In subparagraph b, 
the present dispositions of the major elements of the enemy 
command should be discussed, preferably supplemented by 
a study of the map. All the major capabilities of the enemy 
should be taken into account, with special attention given to 
the action of the main force as a whole, for example, whether 
the enemy can attack, defend, withdraw, etc., and if so, 
where, under the attack, and whether he is capable of en- 
veloping our right or left flank or of making a penetration. 
Minor capabilities, such as sabotage, air or ground raids, etc., 
likely to affect supply and evacuation, should be studied. 

b. In estimating the supply situation the quartermaster, in 
paragraph 2, should consider all of the logistical and other 
factors, which information can be secured primarily from 
other staff officers and G-4. The quartermaster must con- 
sider all other supply and evacuation installations in making 
his estimate, as they may affect the locations of quartermaster 
installations. Therefore, the present location of all supply 
and evacuation installations should be shown on the map 
and studied. Estimated expenditures of losses during the 
period contemplated, quantities of supplies and animal 
replacements on hand, en route, and available from local re- 
sources, and such credits as may have been established should 
be thoroughly studied. An estimate should be made of the 
evacuation of surplus supplies, salvaged and captured mate- 
riel, and prisoners of war. A complete study of all lines of 
communication should be made to include the location, capac- 
ity, condition, critical points, availability, and siding and 
terminal facilities of all railways within the unit area. Like- 
wise, the road net, considering the all-weather roads, sec- 
ondary roads and their capacity, condition, critical points, and 
availabUity should be taken into account. Under waterways, 



162 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 204 

their location, critical points, dockage, and storage facilities 
should be carefully considered. All airway terminals, to- 
gether with their location and capacity should be included. 
Careful thought should be given to the requirements of each 
type, quantities of all types, locations, cargo capacity, and 
rates of speed of all available transport. The requirements 
and quantity of labor available should be included in this 
estimate. Under terrain, a careful study should be made as 
to its effect upon location of establishments, .security of lines 
of communication, and operation of transport. Weather is 
an important factor in all military operations and the past, 
present, and future weather should be considered. The quar- 
termaster should endeavor to secure from the other services 
and from G-3 an estimate of the requirements of all trans- 
port required by the units. 

c. Under paragraph 3 should be listed the several elements 
that appear to be feasible and such alternatives that can be 
used. A complete discussion of the relative advantages and 
disadvantages of each of these elements must be made. This 
is usually done conveniently by expressing these elements 
under the following headings: Lines of communication, in- 
stallations, trains, supplies, transportation, evacuation, labor, 
and protection. 

d. In paragraph 4 there should be stated the essential ele- 
ments of the quartermaster plan of supply as recommended 
to the general staff or the commander. Also, there should 
be indicated herein whether or not the plan recommended 
will adequately support the tactical plan under considera- 
tion, together with such unavoidable supply deficiencies as 
may exist. A further statement, showing the effect of possi- 
ble major adverse conditions of the plan and the alternative 
measures necessary to overcome them or the unavoidable 
deficiencies that will arise, should be made. 

e. If the estimate is submitted in writing to G-4 or the 
commander, it is to be signed by the unit quartermaster. 

/. A separate estimate is usually prepared for each pro- 
posed line of action, but most of the data will be applicable 
to all lines of action. A separate conclusion, however, will 
be required. It will seldom be necessary to reduce the entire 
estimate to written form. Usually paragraph 4 is all that the 
unit quartermaster will submit to the commander or his 
general staff for consideration and decision. 



163 



205 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



■ 205. Quartermaster Plan. — a. Preparation. — Based upon 
the estimate of the quartermaster supply, the unit quarter- 
master prepares the quartermaster plan, a form of which is 
shown in b below. In considering this plan, all phases 
of the quartermaster service are to be given attention. How- 
ever, in many instances there may be few, if any; changes 
under each of the headings. In such cases, the plan will 
include only those points that require changes and for which 
orders must be issued. 

(1) The location of the railhead and other quartermaster 
establishments, such as bakeries, depots, attached units, bath- 
ing units, etc., incinerators, and location of division baggage 
applicable, should be incorporated in the plan, together with 
the employment of all quartermaster units. 

(2) Paragraph 4 should embrace the plan of supply ar- 
rangements for all classes of supply, including motor main- 
tenance and animal replacement. Under this heading there 
should be indicated the type of ration to be received, the 
period for which it is intended, the source of these supplies, 
the method of distribution, the units attached for such supply, 
and the location of class I control points. 

(3) Paragraph 5 should cover any changes that may be 
required in motor maintenance, together with the location 
of shops, salvage of vehicles in the unit, evacuation of the 
vehicles, and such arrangements as may be made with the 
quartermaster of the higher unit with reference to 
the vehicles. (See FM 10-5.) 

(4) Paragraph 6 should cover the location of the head- 
quarters garage and such subgarages as may be selected. 

(5) Paragraph 7 should show the method by which units 
may secure animal replacements and the location of field re- 
mount depots. The assignment and distribution of animals 
to units should also be covered in this paragraph. 

(6) Under paragraph 8, the question of quartering, to- 
gether with such special arrangements, if any, for quarter- 
master troops, headquarters of quartermaster units, and 
equipment and supplies, should be included, together with the 
disposition of all claims arising from the occupancy of real 
estate. 

(7) Paragraph 9 should cover all instructions for collec- 
tion and delivery of salvage to collecting points and its 
disposition. 



164 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 205 

(8) Paragraph 10 should cover all the details of labor for 
collection and burial of the dead, and the location of 
cemeteries. 

(9) Paragraph 11 should include the recommendations of 
the quartermaster for the location of all trains for which 
he is called upon to make recommendation and such special 
Instructions concerning their locations as may be necessary. 

(10) Paragraph 12 should cover the location, headquarters, 
and bivouacs of all units of the quartermaster services in- 
cluding such units as may be attached. There should also 
be incorporated In this paragraph the employment of all 
units of the quartermaster service. (See FM 101-5.) 

&. Suggested form for quartermaster plan. 

1. RAILHEAD. — Location recommended. 

2. LOCATION QUARTERMASTER ESTABLISHMENTS.— Bakeries, 

depots, bathing units, incinerators, etc., if operating for 
the division. Location of division baggage if applicable. 

3. EMPLOYMENT OF QUARTERMASTER UNITS. — General assign- 

ment of all units including attached. 

4. QUARTERMASTER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS. 

a. Class I supply. 

(1) Kind: A, B, C, or D ration. What period for 

each. Include or exclude hay. 

(2) Source: Daily train; division reserve; railhead 

reserve. 

(3) Distribution: When, where, how to be delivered 

to units. 

(4) Enumerate units attached for class I supply. 

(5) Location of class I control points. 

b. Other quartermaster supply, except motor transport and 

animal replacements. — Indicate method by which units 
may procure. 

c. Third echelon motor maintenance supply. — Indicate 

where supplies, spare parts, and unit assemblies may 
be procured. 

5. MOTOR MAINTENANCE. — Location of shops; salvage of vehi- 

cles of the division; evacuation of vehicles; arrangements 
with army quartermaster concerning vehicles. Issue of 
spare parts and automotive supplies. 
6. ..HEADQUARTERS GARAGE. — Location, and any subgarages to 
be selected. 

7. ANIMAL REPLACEMENTS.— Method by which units may pro- 

cure, and location of field remount depot. Assignment and 
distribution. 

8. QUARTERING. — Special arrangements, if any, for quartermaster 

troops, headquarters of quartermaster units, equipment, and 
supplies. Disposition of claims. 

9. SALVAGE. — Instructions for collection of and delivery to col- 

lecting points and disposition. 

10. BURIAL. 

a. Location of cemeteries. 

b. Method of burial with necessary details. 



165 



205-206 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



11. BIVOUACS OF UNIT TRAINS, INFANTRY, ARTILLERY, AND 
ATTACHED CAVALRY. — Recommendation by regiment and 
such special Instructions as may be desired. 
QUARTERMASTER REGIMENT. 

o. locations, headquarters, and bivouacs. 

(1) Regimental headquarters and company. 

(2) Each battalion, truck. 

(3) Battalion, light maintenance and car. 

(4) Service company. 

(5) Attached units, 
b. Employment of units. 

(1) Battalions, truck. 

(2) Battalion, light maintenance and car. 

(3) Service company. 

(4) Attached units. 

■ 206. Quartermaster Field Order. — a. General. — Prom the 
quartermaster plan the staff of the unit quartermaster issues 
the orders necessary to put the plan into effect. Many of 
these instructions may be issued in fragmentary form, 
either orally or in writing; in other instances, it may be 
possible to issue a complete written field order. If the latter 
is not possible, a complete written field order covering all 
oral and written fragmentary orders should be published 
confirming all previous instructions. 
b. Form for quartermaster field order. 

Title 
Place 

Date and hour 

FO 

Maps: (Including administrative map, If Issued, showing it to be a 
numbered annex.) 

1. INFORMATION: 

a. Enemy. — Location; strength; dispositions; etc. 

b. Own forces. 

(1) Tactical plan of whole command as contained in 

paragraph 2 of the division field order and such 
other Information as the quartermaster regiment 
will require to perform its mission. 

(2) Extracts from the division administrative plan or 

order which affect the quartermaster activities, 
in sequence, and to include only those which 
have been changed, such as — 

Class I railhead and time of opening. 

Time of arrival of dally train. 

Supply points and distributing points that 
may affect the quartermaster regiment. 

Division cemetery and burial. 

Traffic restrictions or control. 

Rear boundary of the division. 

Bivouacs of service troops and trains, except 
the quartermaster regiment. 

Rear echelon division headquarters. 



166 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 206 



2. Mission and general plan of operation of the quartermaster regi- 

ment, including general instructions, such as movement to 
bivouac areas, time and order of march, route, general bivouac 
areas, etc. 

3. a. Instructions in a separate lettered subparagraph for each 

unit and attached units, 
b. Instructions for two or more units or the regiment as a 

whole, to be placed in paragraph x. 
i. Administrative details pertaining to the interior administrative 
operations of the regiment such as — 

a. Rations, time, place, and method of issue. 

b. Bivouacs for each unit. 

5. a. Command posts of quartermaster regiment, battalions, 
service company, and attached units, 
b. Location of division quartermaster's office. 
Authentication Signature 
Annexes 
Distribution 

Note. — Refer to administrative map and annexes whenever pos- 
sible in preparation of the field order. 
(See IM 101-5.) 

c. Annexes to accompany field orders. 

Annex No. Labor 



To accompany Quartermaster Field Order No. — , Date — 



Organization 


Number and 
grade 


Report 
to 


At 


Time 


Transportation 
required 


Duty 

















Authentication Signature 



167 



206-207 QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



Annex No. Transport 

To accompany Quartermaster Field Order No. — , Date — 
Class I supplies 



Num- 
ber of 


Company 


Tons 


Fuel 


For unit 


Report to railhead 


xcem&rK£ 


Trucks 
i Trailers 


| Rations 


Grain 


| Hay 


a 

.2 

cs 
o 


Time 




































































1 















Ammunition, troop movements, and miscellaneous transport 



Num- 
ber of 


Company 


Mission 


Report to — 


Time 


Remarks 


Trucks | 


I" 

w 

"3 


Departure 


Return 































































Authentication Signature 



■ 207. Reports. — The quartermaster of each unit renders 
reports, as directed by the headquarters to which he is 
attached, covering all quartermaster operations or activities. 
Such reports are usually rendered daily, but may cover longer 
periods. Among the reports submitted will be a complete 
report, including information concerning the strength of the 
quartermaster regiment, casualities, and stragglers; the lo- 
cation of the various units of the regiment; location of 
installations such as quartermaster distributing points, col- 
lecting points, and division cemeteries; and a statement of 
the status of quartermaster supply, transportation, salvage, 
evacuation of salvage, burials, and other quartermaster ac- 
tivities. The form of the quartermaster report is similar 
to the G-4 periodic report (Form 18) shown in FM 101-5. 



168 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 208-211 



CHAPTER 9 

PROTECTION OP POOD SUPPLIES AGAINST 
POISONOUS GAS 

■ 208. General. — For defense and protection against chemi- 
cal attack see FM 21-40. 

■ 209. Packages. — a. Foodstuffs are packaged in various ways, 
such as in hermetically sealed glass bottles and tins, which 
afford maximum protection against gas, and in sacks (which 
are normally used for sugar, flour, etc.) , which afford a mini- 
mum amount of protection. Procurement of foodstuffs should 
be made of items packaged in a material which gives the 
maximum protection against chemicals. As an example, 
waxed and grease-proof papers are superior to ordinary 
papers. 

b. Complete protection against all forms of chemicals is 
afforded by airtight bottles and sealed tins. Complete pro- 
tection against vapor and small amounts of liquid is af- 
forded by sealed wooden barrels, such as those used for the 
storage of vinegar, pickles, etc. Good protection against 
vapor and liquid is afforded to foodstuffs packaged in oilskin, 
waxed cartons, and greaseproof paper. Limited protection 
only is afforded against vapor and no protection is afforded 
against liquid for foodstuffs packaged in thin cardboard and 
ordinary papers. No protection is afforded to foodstuffs 
packaged in ordinary sacks. 

■ 210. Storage. — Gasproof shelters should be used for the 
storage of food supplies in the field. The degree of protec- 
tion against gas of a warehouse or other place where food- 
stuffs are stored is dependent upon the type of foodstuff 
which is stored and the container in which it is packaged. 
Warehouses which cannot be adjusted to afford good protec- 
tion against gas should be used for the storage of the better- 
packaged foodstuffs. Cold storage plants of up-to-date con- 
struction are extremely satisfactory and should need no 
further gasproofing construction, owing to the fact that they 
are provided with tightly fitting doors and other means of 
excluding the air. Warehouses of ordinary construction must 



169 



5 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 



efully examined. Exits and entrances should be re- 

to a minimum. The ones being kept in use should be 

provided with air locks and the remainder should be sealed. 
Where a large warehouse containing several rooms or sections 
is used, each room or section should be shut off from the 
other. This decreases the chance of gas entering all of 
the rooms. Poor protection against gas is afforded by open 
sheds. Foodstuffs stored therein should be covered by im- 
pervious oil-dressed tarpaulins. Ordinary waterproof covers 
of the canvas type are easily penetrated by gas, but must be 
used if none other are available. The tarpaulins should be 
supported on a framework so that they do not come in actual 
contact with the foodstuffs to be protected. 

■ 211. Transportation. — Foodstuffs packaged in containers 
readily susceptible to chemical contamination, when being 
transported on a road or railway, should be transported in a 
closed type of vehicle. If trucks or barges are used, tarpau- 
lins should be used to cover the items. 

■ 212. Rations. — When cooked rations are delivered to 
troops, they should be kept in closely covered containers until 
used. Ration carts should be covered with tarpaulins for 
protection against chemical spray. Field kitchens should 
be provided with tent flies or other overhead covers. Canned 
goods sprayed with chemicals should be decontaminated by 
boiling before being opened. 

■ 213. Water. — Water which has been contaminated with 
mustard gas should be avoided. In an emergency, such 
water may be rendered safe for use by settling, chlorination, 
and boiling. Water so treated should not be used until it 
has been tested by a medical officer. Water contaminated 
by arsenical agents such as lewisite and adamsite, or by 
white phosphorus, cannot be purified by boiling. 



170 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



Appendix 

ROUTING OP REQUISITIONS, CALLS, AND SUPPLIES 

■ 1. Figure 19 is a diagrammatic representation of a theater 
of operations. The communications zone is divided from 
front to rear into a base section and an advance section. 
Certain establishments are indicated by rectangles which bear 
their designations. Routings of requisitions, calls, and 
supplies are indicated by various lines. 

■ 2. One of the communications zone headquarters is shown 
as the headquarters base section and the other as a headquar- 
ters advance section. 

■ 3. The general base depot (a) is a general depot stocking 
quartermaster, medical, and engineer supplies. The quarter- 
master base depot (b) stocks only quartermaster supplies. 

■ 4. The 1st Division requires certain class IV quartermaster 
supplies for which credits have not been established. These 
supplies may be secured only from the quartermaster base 
depot (b). The routing of the requisition is shown by the 
line IV. 

■ 5. The 1st Division requires certain class II quartermaster 
supplies for which credits have not been established and 
which must be shipped from general base depot (a). The 
routing of the requisition is shown by the line II. 

■ 6. The 1st Division requires certain class III quartermaster 
supplies which must be shipped from the gasoline and oil de- 
pot. A credit to the First Army has been set up in this depot. 
Line III shows the routing of the requisition for these 
supplies. 

■ 7. The 9th Division is in need of animal replacements. 
These replacements may be partly supplied from sources in 
the Second Army, the remainder from the remount depot in 
the communications zone. Credits have not been established 



171 



QUARTERMASTER FIELD MANUAL 

i Second Army. Line AR shows' the routing of the 
tion in order to secure these animal replacements. 

■ 8. A class I supply depot in the communications zone is 
designated to fill calls for class I supplies from the Second 
Army. Class I supplies are on an automatic daily basis. 
Unit sections of the daily train are made up at the class I 
supply depot. Daily telegrams are forwarded from the head- 
quarters, 9th Division. The solid line I shows all establish- 
ments through which the detailed information given in the 
daily telegram will pass. The broken line I shows the estab- 
lishments through which these supplies will move to the 9th 
Division. 

■ 9. Credits have not been established for Camp X, and 
the camp is in need of certain supplies which must be drawn 
from the quartermaster base depot (b). Line S shows the 
routing of the requisition for the procurement of these 
supplies. 

■ 10. The 1st Division needs some class IV quartermaster 
supplies for which the army has established credits. These 
credits have not been exhausted. Line TVa indicates the es- 
tablishments through which the call and the supplies will 
pass. 

■ 11. The 6th Division is in need of ammunition. The army 
has established a 10-day credit for the I corps which has not 
yet been exhausted. Line A shows the establishments 
through which the call and the supplies will pass. 



172 



QUARTERMASTER SERVICE IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS 



flHO- 




438624° — 42 12 X73 



INDEX 



Air Force: Paragraph Page 

Mission and general duties 186 146 

Operations 188 150 

Quartermaster troops 187 146 

Air transportation 91 68 

Ammunition, at regulating station 47 37 

Animal transportation, regulating stations 50 38 

Animals, rations 116 76 

Armored division: 

Battalion, organization 152 121 

Class I and class m supply 155 123 

Class II and class IV supply 156 123 

Logistical considerations 158 124 

Office, division quartermaster 153 122 

Operations 151 121 

Quartermaster service 151 121 

Army:' 

Depots: 

Establishment 183 141 

Lay-outs 185 142 

Location 182 140 

Office, army quartermaster 178 138 

Operations 179 138 

Organization, quartermaster service 177 137 

Service at army supply points 181 140 

Stockage 180 140 

Army corps. (See Corps.) 

Automatic supply, definition 15 9 

Bakery battalion 64 51 

Balanced stocks 12 8 

Bathing 60 47 

Bulk supplies, regulating station 47 37 

Call: 

Definition 9 8 

Routing App. 171 

Camouflage 129 104 

Cavalry division (horse) : 

Class I supplies . 143 114 

Class II and class IV supplies 146 119 

Forage 144 119 

Graves registration 147 120 

Office, division quartermaster 142 114 

Protection 150 120 

Quartering 149 120 

Remounts 146 119 

Salvage 148 120 

Squadron, organization 141 114 

Water 145 119 

Civilian personnel 80 18 

Clearing station 102 75 

174 



INDEX 



Clothing: Paragraph Page 

Repair 

Sterilization and reissue 

Cold storage 

Combat zone: 

Definition 

Responsibility and functions 

Commissary company 

Communications zone, definition 



Corps : 

As part of army: 
Composition. 



Headquarters corps, quartermaster service 

Labor 

Marches 

Motor maintenance 

Movements by rail 

Quartermaster service 

Responsibilities 

Salvage 

Transportation 

Utility service 

Independent : 



Credit, definition 

Dally telegram 

Dally train 

Day of supply 

Definitions: 

Combat zone 

"Communications zone" 

Terminology 

"Theater of operations" 

"Theater of war" 

"Zone of the Interior" 

Depots: 

Army 

Communications zone: 

Designation 

Location 

Operations 

Organization 

Quartermaster company depot 

Stockages 

Definition 

Purpose 

Remount : 

Salvage 

Distribution, division supplies _-. 

Division quartermaster units: 

Armored. (See Armored division.) 



62 


50 


60 


47 


65 


52 


5 


7 


92-94 


72 


63 


50 


4 


3 


208-213 


169 


101 


74 


160 


125 


163 


128 


170 


133 


i. 161 


126 




132 


168 


132 


166 


132 


172 


134 


162 


127 


159 


125 


171 


133 


165 


130 


169 


132 


174 


135 


175 


135 


1 Tfl 


136 


5 


7 


16 


9 


23, 55 


10, 42 


13 


9 


5 95—116 


7, 74 


4 


3 


6-23 


7 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


182-185 


140 


34 


23 


35 


24 


37 


26 


36 


24 


39 


27 


38 


27 


17 


10 


33 


23 


68-70 


55 


59 


46 


123, 137 


87, 112 



175 



INDEX 



Division quartermaster units — Continued. Paragraph Page 

Battalion, triangular division: 

Distribution of supply 137 112 

Duties 134 109 

Motor maintenance 139 113 

Organization 135,136 109,111 

Purpose 133 109 

Transport 138 112 

Cavalry. (See Cavalry Division.) 

Office, division quartermaster.- 

Square division 120, 121 82, 85 

Triangular division 136 ill 

Operations: 

Camouflage 129 104 

Class I supply 123 87 

Class II and class TV 125 100 

Employment of transport 127 101 

Fundamentals of supply 122 86 

Gasoline and oil supply 124 99 

Graves registration 130 106 

Protection 128 104 

Salvage 131 106 

Traffic and traffic control 132 106 

Water 126 100 

Regiment 1171-119 77 

Dump 98 74 

Estimate of situation 203, 204 161 

Evacuation, sick and wounded 48 37 

Field order 206 166 

Pilling station 67 55 

Forage 144 119 

Gasoline and oil: 

Allowances 115 76 

Corps supply 162 127 

Division supply 124 99 

Filling station 67 55 

Supply units 66 54 

General headquarters: 

General 1 24 11 

Quartermaster service 189-192 152 

Graves registration 130, 170 106, 133 

Hospitals, source of replacement 79 58 



Independent corps. (See Corps.) 
Infantry division. (See Division quartermaster 



units.) 
Installations: ■ 

Communications zone 28 17 

Eegulating station 45 33 

Interior, zone, definition . 2 1 

Labor, corps 167 132 

Laundry 61 49 

Lines of communication 20 10 

Logistical considerations, armored division 158 124 

Marches, corps units 168 132 



176 



INDEX 



Paragraph Page 



Military railway service 106 75 

Motor maintenance, corps 166 132 

Motor transport service 105 75 

Motor transportation: 

Corps 165 130 

Employment 127 101 

Importance 82 60 

Maintenance 84, 85, 139 63, 113 

Operation ■ 82 60 

Organization 82 60 

Pool 138 H2 

Regulating station 50 38 

Movements by rail 172 134 

Armored division 153 122 

Cavalry division 142 114 

Communications zone: 

Duties of quartermaster 26 12 

Installations 28 17 

Organization 27 14 

Quartermaster corps, duties 25 11 

Units 29 17 

Division (square) 120 82 

Division (triangular) 136 111 

Independent corps 1 175 135 

Order, field 206 166 

Packages, protection from chemicals 209 169 

Personnel: 

Procurement and distribution, communica- 
tions zone 30 18 

Regulating station 49 37 

Replacement. (See Replacement.) 

Plan 202, 205 161, 164 

Poisonous gas, protection of food supplies from__ 208-213 169 

Priorities, definition 10 8 

Promotion, noncommissioned officers 80 58 

Protection 128, 150 104, 120 

Quartering 149 120 

Quartermaster : 

Communications zone: 

Duties 26 12 

General 24 11 

Office 24-29 11 

Division: 

Duties and functions 121 85 

Office organization 120 82 

General headquarters 24 11 

Independent corps 174 135 

Theater of operations 24 11 

Quartermaster battalion: 

Distribution of supply 137 112 

Duties 134 109 

Organization 135 109 

Purpose 133 109 

Transport 138 112 

Quartermaster corps; duties In communications 

zone 25 11 



177 



INDEX 



Quartermaster regiment: Paragraph Page 

Duties 118 77 

Organization 119 78 

Purpose 117 77 

Rail movement 201 160 

Rail transportation 86-90 68 

Railhead: 

Characteristics 52 38 

Company 54 41 

Daily train 55 42 

Definition 22 10 

Operation 53 39 

Purpose 51 38 

Reserves 56 42 

Rations: 

Definition 116 76 

Protection from contamination 212 170 

Refrigeration 65 52 

Regiment 117-119 77 

Regulating station: 

Ammunition 47 37 

Animal transportation 50 38 

Bulk supplies 47 37 

Definition 21 10 

Evacuation 48 37 

Installations 45 33 

Kinds 42 30 

Location 43 31 

Motor transportation 50 38 

Operation 46 34 

Personnel 49 37 

Purpose 40 28 

Regulating officer 41 29 

Remount depot: 

Operations 70 55 

Squadron 68 55 

Troop 69 55 

Replacement: 

Forwarding 76, 77 57, 58 

Hospitals as source 79 58 

Plan ... 71, 72 56 

Quartermaster personnel 78 58 

Requisitioning 77 58 

Return to original units ^ 80 58 

Sources 75, 79 57, 58 

System 74 57 

Types 73 57 

Reports 207 168 

Requirements, definition 14 9 

Requisition: 

Definition 7 8 

Routing App. 171 

Reserves : 

Armored division 154 122 

Definition 11 8 

Railhead 56 42 



178 



INDEX 



Salvage: Paragraph Page 

Cavalry division 148 120 

Collecting company 58 45 

Corps quartermaster service 171 133 

Headquarters quartermaster salvage depot 59 46 

Laundry 61 49 

Procedure 57 44 

Purpose 57 44 

Shoe, clothing, and textile repair 62 50 

Sterilization and bath 60 47 

Services, combat zone 92 72 

Shoe repair 62 50 

Shuttling: 

Calculations, necessity for 199 158 

Large forces 200 160 

Planning 196 155 

Pooling 195 155 

Preparation 196 155 

Purpose 195 155 

Serials : 

Composition 197 156 

Movement 198 157 

Types 195 155 

Sterilization and bath 60 47 

Stockages 38, 180 27, 140 

Storage, protection against chemicals 210 169 

Subsistence : 

Bakery battalion 64 51 

Cold storage and refrigeration 65 52 

Commissary company _" 63 50 

Supplies : 

Classes 95 74 

Definition 6 7 

Routing App. 171 

Supply: 

Communications zone 31 19 

Gasoline and oil. (See Gasoline and oil.) 

Installations 57-80 44 

Points : 

Combat zone 93 74 

Definition 18 10 

Terminology 6-23 7 

Theater of operations, definition 3 1 

Theater of war, definition 1 1 

Traffic and traffic control 132 106 

Train, definition 103 75 

Transportation : 

Air 91 68 

Armored division 157 123 

Communications zone 32 22 

Food, protection against contamination 211 170 

Motor 82-85 60 

Bail 86-90 68 

Water ' 81 60 

Troop movements: 

Assigned motor transport 193, 194 153 

Definition 104 75 

Railway 201 160 

Shuttling. (See Shuttling.) 

179 



INDEX 



Paragraph Page 

Units, communications zone : 29 17 

Units of fire 13 9 

Units of measure 13 9 

Utility services, corps quartermaster service 169 132 

Water: 

Protection from contamination 21S 170 

Supply 126, 145 100, 119 

Zone of the interior, definition 2 1 



180 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1942 



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